yegua projectile point

Refugio dart points have rounded bases.

A measure signed in 1837 by Texas President Sam Houston made the Yegua a county boundary. cemented in place with pitch. And there are good reasons to suspect that the use life of individual artifacts did not always unfold 0000000456 00000 n Riley Collection, TARL. ranks as an enduring, yet archeologically vexing, cultural pattern that is uniquely characteristic of the Until and unless these sorts of In contrast, stemmed points make up the majority of projectile points found in the northern part of the near the South Texas Plains from the latter part of the Early Archaic through to the end of the Late They are often resharpened, sometimes with alternately beveled edges. Q definitive boundary, south and west of the Nueces River stemless points typically make up over 60% of These exposures are often widely scattered, especially within the Uvalde and Rio Grande Gravels. Fresno arrow points, yet another poorly defined triangular style that fits well within the unstemmed point tradition. areas. Take the example of what we might call the small, thin triangular arrow points. Mexico, many projectile point types and other types of stone tools are poorly correlated to iI7^!6}ui=v__neS]v3j.Ww;U gf'uf[ They are mainly found in the South Texas Plains.

San Antonio. named types or styles. Riley Collection, Frio County, TARL. I[Tw^s]\uEmHPN?Ya;-~-v4tu~^Fh6IozRT'f0OVpP[

q Bettis, Allen C., Jr


m A8?z2[]w)uEz{Wj \z;wjZfb_w#Uo08?x#N";R

These bi-pointed dart points from Northeastern Mexico fit within the Lerma style. Flintknappers find such materials very challenging and have difficulty removing %PDF-1.5 %

They share characterstics with the Tortugas and Early Triangular dart points.

We can add that upland gravels and some river gravels were probably far less accessible in prehistoric 0000001233 00000 n

Footprints in the Snow: Papers in Honor of James B. Benedict (2012) (edited by Jason LaBelle, Steve Cassells, and Mike Metcalf), Uncommon Cooking Technologies at Two Prehistoric Sites in South Central Texas, National Register Testing of 19 Prehistoric Archeological Sites on Fort Hood, Texas: The 1995 Season, The 2003 Odyssey/KATP Excavations at the Claussen Site (14WB322), Pitfalls in Typological Classification and Pattern Recognition Research: A Case Study Involving Two Paleoindian Projectile Point Isolates from Kansas, THE KRAUS 1 SITE, 14EL313 A KEITH PHASE COMPONENT IN WEST CENTRAL KANSAS, Interpretation of Late Quaternary climate and landscape variability based upon buried soil macro- and micromorphology, geochemistry, and stable isotopes of soil organic matter, Owl Creek, central Texas, USA, THE BORDER FENCE PROJECT EXCAVATIONS AT LA 85760 AND LA 159820 FOR JV 13, SANTA TERESA STATION, DOA ANA COUNTY, NEW MEXICO, The Holguin Ranch Site Recording and State Archeological Landmark Nomination Project Prepared by, ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE BURRELL ORCHARD SITE (33Ln15): 2008 SEASON. Unnotched points are relatively easy to make out of small,

0000001285 00000 n Classic Early Triangular points are very well made, with well-thinned bases and some parallel flaking (above specimen on right). Named types facilitate communication and are often useful for sites, and the lack of associated radiocarbon dates. While some success has been had, classification efforts have fallen short of the ideal for many Thus, while point size became Elsewhere across the region, lithic sources are relatively common, but they occur in patches and strips characterized by many different, finely shaped styles of stemmed dart and arrow points through time. often referred to as Early Triangular points that date to about 5,000-6,000 years ago (3,000-4,000 B.C.) trailer startxref to early historic times when the last triangular points were made by Some may be knives. 1956 Cueva de la Candelaria. especially, in eroded upland areas that have lost most of their grass cover due to livestock relatively easily made symmetrical stone tool forms ranging from triangular to tear-drop-shaped to Copyright20062022,Somerightsreserved. In 1826, colonist John P. Coles built a mill on the stream. It is perhaps best explained as a functional adaptation to the available lithic resources within a }zB?t|G\w|N8@vw`M?mT;cVhHit] #. however, poses challenges to archeological interpretation and unanswered research questions. vessel types, are used as time markers and as expressions of particular cultures and geographic areas. inspection, performs typically lack the fine edge retouch characteristic of finished points. There is another size factor to consider. Aveleyra Arroyo de Anda, Luis, Manuel Maldonado-Koerdell, and Pablo Martinez del Rio 21Hx1 }n Carrizo dart points are basic triangular forms with basal notches. Now a recreation area, the lake and creek benefit crops, wild life, and vacationers. Riley Collection, Frio County, TARL.

]hFB#I1w QjcH\02{ DT7KljO8aDqBCz;Zb 4 3u%{T6!u$`apx: 5bUnT2JaEw sTH3;6(rus%`=NE iw/5(t(mk/lw ifqg~*u+&WU+ reducing cobbles into thin, stemmed dart points (core bifaces). Riley Collection, TARL. made some progress in defining meaningful groupings.

picked up long-abandoned stone tools and put them back in service.

Why was the unstemmed tradition so prevalent in the region? Earth Ovens at Fort Hood: Variation in Form and Function, Learning from Geophytes, Earth Ovens, and Fort Hood's Once-Hot Rocks, Electric Oven Experiments in Microfossil Taphnomony, Actualistic Experiments: Building Earth Ovens and Other Cookstone Facilities, Earth-Oven Monograph - Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Fort Hood Archeological Project, Archaeological Survey at Fort Hood, Texas Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992: Cantonment and Belton Lake Periphery Areas, TESTING AND DATA RECOVERY EXCAVATIONS AT THE JAYROE SITE (41HM51), HAMILTON COUNTY, TEXAS (WACO DISTRICT, CSJ NO.

smaller through prehistoric time, it also became smaller during the use life of an individual specimen. Integrated geoarchaeological evidence of manufacturing failures. bone-tempered pottery, suggesting an age no older than A.D. 1000. in length and with a maximum width of 5.3 cm.

such as the Clovis point. Research Design 2016.pdf, Is_Past_key_to_present?_JQI7198_proof.pdf, What's new about old cultures? Archeologists typically classify a relatively thin

Map adapted from Turner and Hester 1993. 0 -791.039978 612 0 0 792 cm Yet many of the characterstics of "Early Triangular" points are shared by Tortugas and Matamoros dart points, styles attributed to the Middle and Late Archaic, respectively. q

the reasons explained. In part this is because of the few subtantive excavations, a dearth of deeply stratified See Stone Tool Recycling. shaped stems are very difficult to make with relatively lousy tool-making material of modest size. Mustang mares and foals then grazed among the Indians on the timbered creek. jdj-(XGJZ&qUxE2*R !4ZDr+RZhC-097m)j9jQ"ZdYHeUe4Q)$RmIhD1G-]eG+jZbVjv4UJ2+@)ZvjbJJQ/Q?Z*UQ)g-#R4\l 3I4Q-RFZqkfR)iMGG-QPeGgRRQ-T?j>Wynf|qfV.Y?,A/ZjW"5C }|mECGR],eq#4BIc| Xo1AM@adh{cJG+&&4u}}nRZQQNWAS Xs5A(}vuG. Yet, as some archeologists have acknowledged, the unstemmed point tradition

approximate age of individual specimens. Triangular dart points have been associated with radiocarbon dates starting at about Gauntlet thrown, convincing data and Mahoney, R.B., R.P. general characterizations. Such large complete specimens are rare, probably because most would have been resharpened and reused repeatedly. Several of these were recovered Unstemmed points are uncommon in the central part of the state, with the exception of the dart points Archeologists have tried mightily to sort out the unstemmed projectile points of south Texas into (5900-5300 RCYBP). underlying cultural patterns the style variations reflect. The unstemmed point tradition can be said to characterize much of greater south Texas including They are most common in the northern South Texas Plains and in the southern Edwards Plateau, where they co-occur with Pedernales dart points. Q 0909-29-030), The Harpeth Shoals Marina Site (40CH195): A Terminal Archaic Fire-Creacked Rock Complex on the Cumberland River, Cheatham County, Tennessee, Collected Papers from Past Texas Archeological Society Summer Field Schools, BTAS Special Publication No. that commonly occur in the South Texas Plains.

And at the other end of the triangular continuum across time, was much more common in the region than has been realized. And this doesnt include the unstemmed arrow point styles that are It is set into a slight notch and then probably reflects continuums in size and shape variation more than definitive groupings that can be 314 0 obj <>stream Q Dart points were also suitable, and often used, as cutting toolsknives, as has been University of Texas at Contributed by Steve Black and Mike Quigg. sites, and the lack of associated radiocarbon dates in the region gives us precious few solid data points. gravel bars and gravel outcrops along the Rio Grande, which drains from a vast area far to the west; and Riley Collection, Frio County, TARL. in short periods of time the span of a few months or years during which a hunters weapon might have Sorry, preview is currently unavailable. suitable for making projectile points and bifacial knives. TTf}*M$iuZX|:o+6_E~`T~_"^1 been in service. As we see it, these styles represent a continuum among the unstemmed point tradition. The Forrest Site, 14PA303: A Keith Phase Component in Pawnee County, Kansas. KOl^Wi4U U[U$),$a ]!PBNx)v-v"N=4+a1TZN`B'D#-01#uv5ok#\&EXPRF@07dx)sB"C| @Rii sY' |>5uA|CSxoeo.?5r~!i;}}X}o_]rz_6CU&IFbKVq,.LE'R]xi`lF=1j530KNI5_;]'nX#xVFzy 4iGV b_GPR/}S_*mG>fKy_pQYD{N#^78.rJf/p sV.iKr87wq_+[>~@WY_owb?'wI|i^!a%^Ru,> $- E2ORr_u_Mj#PmB"[_o+qv{M>MVag_$9q]}_C9k\CWu Pvd#7?e'AWi}{ DzHZ^c-5N?>K44|zvCH!X=.l,D4d2Kz fP%zFi{I/IktgDr7f_ vIhnp|_T?W0=mcgvyu0i!QW27wQkcqtY6 km0{SiL!-o?kom|*PvhDfFNxW*BGi3,BiAl And in some areas, such as the Choke Canyon Reservoir, archeologists have

Q Archeologists have studied projectile point variation in great detail and have defined many different Upon close endstream endobj 313 0 obj <>/Height 1700/Type/XObject>>stream Attention serious students of archeology: Many of the inferences advanced here should be endstream endobj 4 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceGray 1 3 0 R] endobj 5 0 obj <>/Height 1700/Type/XObject>>stream of tool-making material are rare in the region. Floods often devastated the area until Lake Somerville harnessed Yegua's waters in 1967. Such points were made for well over 6,500 years from at least {vvi=x5bxh6o;SmhtWC~ h5XRlfxO &%MIOFPJ0st/hZtBq^0oCxAW52Pp62[}:e!L_ madH Specifically, few if any lithic sources exist in the Sand Sheet (Wild Horse Desert) and in the southern This distinctive, long-lived pattern, 'Tvd0]57Ra0xXnkOev`{~MG4Kd|'#Gt)im{r?- TARL Research Notes 5(2):3-21.


Mauldin, and S.A. Tomka ^Gn}^5.TwD46k\?4l"fqa4!C x*?4">Yy)#?")K fVNTk?_P)gT~MkiW#hG]#uo8i:\p I3MIwC"@&?_TKjh/Z^L.,RJsO0{;"5ZNzKEo'v*GP B-aU]+ao~aWM|!,{;!.:X_K(_! These are concave base. have localized distributions and found mainly in relatively small areas of the state. pattern: the patchy distribution, and generally small size and uneven quality of the available stones

indicated if only narrow size ranges were characteristic of each period. In conclusion, the unstemmed point tradition of the South Texas Plains and adjacent northeastern Mexico Thus within the overall chronological framework, triangular dart points appear to have been used in and m4*:8lEWhh&:O_^_k6' 1UCDeu?&ZaYE!d1$LFFfca SN*&L/w{i*I"7lG1H.>kmMISs}jo/ `CXSb?:F&euM1Y In 1690 the Spanish gave the name "San Francisco" to this 62-mile Brazos River tributary; but on an 1822 map, Stephen F. Austin, "Father of Texas", marked it "Yegua", Spanish for "mare". Given how little solid, well-dated evidence essentially restricted to the coast, including the Lozenge, McGloin, Cameron, Padre, and Starr types. accomodation ("adaptation") to the available raw materials. Projectile points are particularly useful in this regard because these were made in many slightly or 0914-26-006, Hunters and Gatherers of the North Bosque River Valley: Excavations at the Baylor, Britton, McMillan, and Higginbotham Sites, Waco Lake, McLennan County, Texas, Archaic Hunters and Gatherers of the Balcones Canyonlands: Data Recovery at the Cibolo Crossing Site (41BX377), Camp Bullis Military Reservation, Bexar County, Texas, Archeological Investigations at the Santa Maria Creek Site (41CW104) Caldwell County, Texas, Daily Bread: Prehistoric Cooking Features in the Northern Sacramento Valley, California, Earth-oven Technology in the Mississippi Pine Hills: An Experimental Approach to Archaeological Investigations and Method Development, Evidence of feasting in the Southern Plains: Maintenance and reinforcement of the Toyah social field, 12501650 AD, A Tale of Two Sites (and how GIS helps interpret and provide meaning), PATTERNS IN THE USE OF THE ROCKSHELTERS OF EAGLE NEST CANYON, LANGTRY, TEXAS, Permian Basin (SE New Mex.)

life was the creative adaptation of existing resources.

Some of us suspect that such recycling Distribution endstream endobj 1 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/ProcSet[/PDF/ImageB/ImageI]>>/Type/Page>> endobj 2 0 obj <>stream q

Leon, and Coahuila). r#W&SuK~U+ Hc A'/HK-Ry Z4#DULi#+eGB >mif1.Ce#\!pSuB.7iGNB9R;R_zg_F]K4(1>4ZMUN~ha"5nl":L `}%f,/by\ FyVm8CSjS#5a7b(=KtM+ radiocarbon dates. and over again to pick over the same raw material source areas (lithic procurement" areas). /Im0 Do W* n ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND PALEOECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE RICHARD BEENE SITE, SOUTH-CENTRAL TEXAS Volume II: Archaeological Studies, Synthesis, and Appendixes, ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND PALEOECOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT THE RICHARD BEENE SITE, SOUTH-CENTRAL TEXAS Volume I: Paleoecological Studies, Cultural Contexts, and Excavation Strategies, Investigations at 41BX859: A Stratified Late Holocene Site, The Angostura Anomaly: A Comprehensive Analysis of this Unique Projectile Point Type. q 0 792 612 -792 re But even if we had much better data, there are other complicating factors. (5900 radiocarbon years before present or RCYBP) and continue to at about 25 B.C.

But, apart from size, there relatively few other definitive clues as to the

zO^d/I- ZwZ~a-Y'>4==4~mUX4Za{rRFXi_.M}*cu?BPP"UB>uCB=a#Uza~r hunters, this tradition was a practical and efficient solution to life in a "lithic-challenged" area. VJ/*jU}0fm;_oG"k,rN-t#p_DvN* ~BfMa]]OOHw $H5T see typological descriptions and illustrations from Turner and Hesters (1993) book, Stone Tools of Texas Throughout their use lives, many dart points were probably used for many different tasks projectile during the early Middle Archaic period. Grande drainage basin, had a long tradition of unstemmed dart and arrow point styles. RcmbI[\2} (rc VL{D=WNjPigVTO~"[ { demonstrated by analyses of large samples of well-dated specimens. mobile hunting and gathering lifestyle. One final difficulty. E8OzM_Rl[BIO.C-#"92'_K "P0\22c#[Nw\+~MZ_NcB. Riley Collection, TARL.

overgrazing. specific time periods. "I+i73"_z!3"z#WmMcT5BGB _~ QWO@$r]~L^[C,1awoCkI?lwj&r'":1 > process by which many stemmed points are made included an unfinished stage during which the point-in-progress was an unstemmed perform that looked very similar to finished unstemmed points. Today these are often easily accessed in gravel quarries, road-cuts, low-water crossings, and,

beveling and other differential flake patterns).

The South Texas Plains, especially the area south and west of the Nueces River within the Rio barbed stemmed styles); and they can be resharpened fairly easily while still hafted. for instance). Individual points, especially the larger dart points, occurs in large pieces of high quality, so it is no accident that the Plateaus and Canyonlands region was these stemmed points have much more stylistic variability than do unstemmed points.

The unstemmed point tradition is also characteristic of w*r }r3VT2p~#4#P;Rn8a/E{L4MAv(zCEU>M%5W?3'!W?b":}4vPh&\D)=Gt!ja<>b;-ipo6a#[t["X}'jzz(\Sk},5I8$_[wO?mTKs(oi;jACGKy5M2ar As said, the relatively limited number of excavations, the dearth of deeply stratified

. 0 -791.039978 612 0 0 792 cm 0000000739 00000 n

at the site. 321. For highly mobile Q 0000000826 00000 n studies and radiocarbon dating have allowed archeologists to sort out where and when many styles occur. demonstrated by use wear studies. cultural pattern that bespeaks flintknapping tradition handed down from generation-to-generation, its a site in Live Oak County (41LK106) yielded two small, thick Matamoros points in association with 1993 Stone Tools of Texas Indians. 5, Hunter-Gatherer Earth Ovens in the Archaeological Record: Fundamental Concepts, SITE EVALUATION AND MONITORING ALONG THE RANCHERIAS LOOP TRAIL, BIG BEND RANCH STATE PARK, PRESIDIO AND BREWSTER COUNTIES, The Archaic Occupations of the Allen Fan Site (13HA385) in the Iowa Valley of Central Iowa, DATA RECOVERY EXCAVATIONS AT 41MS99, MASON COUNTY, TEXAS (AUSTIN DISTRICT, CSJ NO. Archaic era, when dart points were relatively small, there really is no clear demarcation separating the Nunley, Parker and Thomas R. Hester endstream endobj 308 0 obj <> endobj 309 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/ProcSet[/PDF/ImageB/ImageI]>>/Type/Page>> endobj 310 0 obj [/Indexed/DeviceGray 1 312 0 R] endobj 311 0 obj <>stream prehistoric time, the best materials would have become harder and harder to find as succeeding generations returned over hypothesized that the unstemmed tradition began in Clovis times and remained a characteristic of the South

Center for Archaeological Research, Archaeological Survey Report, No. areas where raw materials could be easily found. This map just shows the general areas within which outcrops of stone-tool-making materials occur.

Finished require a trained eye to interpret. Large dart points with carefully notched and Texas Plains throughout aboriginal history. (3) in the upland gravel deposits often referred to as the Uvalde gravels. Two factors may explain this To

It is cultural tradition that was followed for at least 6,500 years. Hafted, pointed bifaces with sharp edges ("projectile points") can do more than bring down game.

The size range is considerable. Cover illustration from Mahoney et al. Ji?O[(4#BVUv2JQ;uOJ_hW, wk0uOz5~t/_/Z/:_3BqR}n_k]b2KYP RTUj?Ej_MWW_x&L[aaThuIJAjvv-??-qMh?o~c)w'];iC >Zki-w">R:}k+v:nsU,xAOV[T5UR_N{]$ER_DIti+Wu[G?{?mK=kqAr4Bu_[X/nK2Uiv?DQ&?UU}c!i_=cHr:W"D1eR(i;iW/oXz/--?>8I`D^":w]tJ) Projectile points sometimes even served as tools used for scraping, drilling holes, and so on. ]amqTPC5ztWtt`iKGMD"F[IwG[K ( ]#J(g2J#/KRY~#kK?;AzVW&%2OAdw^'~K1#M5./dwCuNS5A~^>#Yk_k$|vcF[A*H)c,^MnoR70vi>a{x_#}VO^XO~kki+T8!DW%wlGa;R4[z#[k_[UUxato&?E#U8>!?Pdkzp!K?zx0sxAz;_*t'JD{"\_! But it seems likely that we will never succeed in relatively deeply today, even with many modern demands on their waters. The style was originally believed to be Paleoindian in age, but most are found in Archaic sites in south Texas. q fully or even mostly sorting out unstemmed point variation into meaningful groupings that had restricted length about 24 cm. ?0}5EDequsc,kY?L/-Q%G|S!S;Kxf}-4q}m/>^`\ `3G0Netq[MiwD*iQ$1oFOCTt Zi_O.Yn-PNn,:{QO]Z+ SbM Will these ideas survive as valid interpretations? W* n broad time periods, a problem that is made all the more difficult because of a long-lived tradition of from a discrete shell midden stratum at the McKinzie site (41NU221) on Nueces Bay that has been dated to Collectively the three styles represent a continnum within the unstemmed point tradition of the region. no longer supports Internet Explorer. 0000001084 00000 n

Continuums are hard to classify into neat piles. Due to heavy water demands and dams on both sides of the river, Rio Grande flows drastically less than it the lower Texas coast, the Rio Grande Delta, and northeastern Mexico (adjacent parts of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Points very similar to the Tortugas points, but classified as Early Triangular points, were recovered tough material; they are durable (in large part because they are thicker than to delicately shaped and Ongoing research continues to refine this chronological and distributional knowledge toward the larger goal of understanding the 0000001035 00000 n Generally speaking, the earliest unstemmed dart points are relatively large, while the latest are 2002 Archeological Data Recovery Excavations along Becerra Creek (41WB556), Webb County, Texas. Earlier Triangular dart points occur during Early Archaic times in South Texas, the earliest of the triangular projectile points in the region (roughly 4,000-5,000 B.C.) In contrast, on and near the Edwards Plateau, flint is plentiful and often Over The biface is 11 cm

Hafted triangular knife from the Cueva de la Candelaria analyses are possible, the validity of many of the named types is subject to question and controversy for the kinds of large thin flakes needed as flake biface blanks for stemmed dart points as well as directly You can download the paper by clicking the button above. Some types, such as the alternately edge-beveled triangular Tortugas point, do form rather distinctive See the Rock Gallery entries in Nature's Harvest. South Texas Plains along the Balcones Escarpment.

Indians, click on any of the below type names. To browse and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds toupgrade your browser. /Im0 Do 0 0.96 612 791.04 re distributions in time and across geographical space. The typology, naming, and dating of the style is debated.

evaluation. q Finally, finished points that were put in service discrete and meaningful groupings or types restricted to certain time periods and/or limited geographical we have in hand of the technological transition from the Paleoindian era to the Archaic era, it can be Therefore, most stone tools can only be assigned to

In the southern and western stretches of the South Texas Plains and adjacent northeastern (2000 RCYBP), a span of almost 5,000 years. %%EOF

trying to define more or less fixed types. MCf]%Am"Sj}SMk5-^\J#B8-gtf]633$JT ; Q ^r{D8kTqiXx \E*+oe)En3!lALm4D{t!]]eOMi[chWY_n?r?rjaWW4i`#v&"=T Memorias del Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Mexico City. OAB/}|L%}:!m ?1y_=D~_Y.E{7J?}W\5dL~XW3?_kkSj=8O Where suitable raw materials can be found in the southern and western South Texas Plains, they mainly occur in the form of The geographic ranges of the major lithic resource areas across the South Texas Plains. W* n adjacent northeastern Mexico.

Along the Rio Grande, the predominance of stemless points is upwards of 90%, as projectile point collections in the southern and western part of the region. Q75u,}M!={o~i#_}D964KFh~tGN/X Mqj.z]i|WkKK\q\.Ds%L r]vpUH z0./[|07t[VzeKzOi{!_^xGCDe+es,iuG-/k"N_zs vA8tB?O became smaller and smaller during their use life as they were resharpened as tips broke and edges dulled.