phantom motorcycle club columbus ohio

United States v. Sturman, 951 F.2d 1466, 1478 (6th Cir. It is further understoodthat Antonio Johnson believed that the Hells Lovers were responsible for the September drive-by shooting which resulted in the death of Steven Caldwell. Finding no good cause for delay under Rule 12(c)(3), the Chief Judge refused to entertain the jury pool challenge.6. * Brandon Paige, 21, of Detroit, was convicted of conspiracy to commit murder in 2014). Defense counsel argued that this instruction would likely be required under Elonis v. United States, 135 S. Ct 2001 (2015), which was pending before the Supreme Court at that time.

Upon referral, the Chief Judge denied the defendants' oral motion during voir dire as untimely under Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 12(b)(3), which requires challenges to the composition of the jury be made before the start of trial. Fed. 922(g)(1).

He said a partnership of federal and local law enforcement agencies known as Detroit One helped thwart a murder plot in the case. Convicted of engaging in a RICO conspiracy, conspiracy to commit murder in aid of racketeering, assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of racketeering, conspiracy to assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of racketeering, assault on federal officers as they served a search warrant on his home on 4 October, 2013, using and carrying firearms during and in relation to a crime of violence and being a felon in possession of firearms. United States v. Lawson, 535 F.3d 434, 444 (6th Cir.

Based on this evidence, a rational jury could certainly find that Schamante and Sorrell participated in PMC's affairs. Brown was sentenced to 100 months in prison for his conviction for conspiracy to commit murder in aid of racketeering under 18 U.S.C. The evidence is sufficient to sustain this conviction. How do I get the domain after the purchase? 1962(d); Assault with a Dangerous Weapon in Aid of Racketeering, 18 U.S.C.

Your online safety and security is our top priority. Jackson contends instead that racketeering itself should have served as the underlying crime or racketeering activity under 2E1.3(a)(2).

(This was the shooting of Leon McGee.) The arrests in this case were made as part of the Detroit One Initiative, a collaborative effort between law enforcement and the community to reduce homicide and other violent crime in Detroit, and through the lead efforts of the Comprehensive Violence Reduction Partnership Task Force, which consists of representatives of the ATF, Detroit Police Department, Michigan State Police, Michigan Department of Corrections and the FBI. United States v. Rios, 830 F.3d 403, 426 (6th Cir. Moreover, Schamante acknowledged that he served in leadership roles within PMC. We hope that removing dangerous trigger pullers will give our communities the peaceful quality of life we all deserve., ATF works every day with our partners to take the most violent offenders off our streets and put them behind bars, said Special Agent in Charge S. Robin Shoemaker. And in a conversation with Miller, Jackson recounted Johnson's announced plan and said that Slowpoke, the Hell Lover believed to have killed Caldwell, gotta get it. DE 740, Gov't Ex.

They are honest, straightforward and deliver what they promise.

After spotting Sidekick Leon McGee leaving another club's clubhouse, the Phantoms attacked, and Sorrell shot McGee. Bowman died March 3 at age 69.

The prosecution even introduced one such fragment at trial, and McGee testified that it had been pulled from his face. Maurice Williams Convicted of racketeering conspiracy. See Waucaush v. United States, 380 F.3d 251, 25556 (6th Cir.

Jackson, though not a ringleader in the Hell Lover murder conspiracy, played more than a minimal rolethere was evidence at trial and sentencing showing that Jackson actively participated, including by sharing information about targets with others in the conspiracy.

This questioning, though not phrased precisely how defendants may have wished, allowed the court to sufficiently probe whether each juror had been impacted by the reported incident. Sentenced to 90 months in prison.

These factors should warrant a departure or variance from the applicable statutory maximum DE 596, Brown Sentencing Mem., Page ID 7387.

* Christopher Odum, 30, of Detroit, was convicted of conspiracy to commit murder From this evidence, a rational jury could conclude that defendants were guilty of assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of racketeering and infer a conspiracy to do the same.

2010)). See also United States v. James, 575 F. App'x 588, 592 (6th Cir. Second, the base offense level used in sentencing under this guideline is designed to vary in reference to the seriousness of the violent crime undertaken in aid of racketeering, and bifurcation of 2E1.3(a)(2) would defeat the sliding-scale VICAR sentencing inquiry.

As for Jackson, the plot to murder Hell Lovers was hatched in retaliation for the murder of a PMC member, and Jackson acknowledged that Phantoms were expected to retaliate against anyone who disrespected them. Mich. (Feb. 19, 2013), []. 2022 Advance Local Media LLC.

Some of the appellants also argue that defense counsel should have been allowed to directly question jurors individually and under oath. Before beginning to question individual jurors, the court allowed counsel for the defendants to submit written questions for the court to consider, and counsel for Jackson did so.

Appellants first argue that the district court failed to engage in a searching inquiry and that the questions were not phrased to elicit honest responses.

2012) (knowingly carrying out the orders of an enterprise satisfies the Reves test).

The government brought various charges against these six appellants and others1 in a fifteen-count indictment.

Schamante also argues that the court erred in imposing a sentence at the top end of the sentencing guideline range.

6.The Chief Judge also held that that because defendants' jury pool challenge was untimely, their motion for disclosure was moot. Convicted of engaging in a RICO conspiracy, conspiracy to commit murder in aid of racketeering, assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of racketeering, conspiracy to assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of racketeering and using and carrying firearms during and in relation to a crime of violence.

[T]hey would've had me. DE 740, Gov't Ex. commit murder in aid of racketeering, assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of


A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States. PMC places high value on being the toughest, or baddest, outlaw motorcycle club. Jackson first alleges that the district court incorrectly calculated his base offense level as 33 and argues that it instead should have been 19 under the applicable sentencing guideline, USSG 2E1.3. Vol. In the third phase, the Phantoms were to kill Hell Lovers in other cities throughout the country where the Phantoms had chapters. Nicholson claims he did not know the people he fired on were federal agents. 1990); Fowler, 535 F.3d at 42021. This station is part of Cox Media Group Television.

R. Crim. A lock (LockA locked padlock) or https:// means youve safely connected to the .gov website.

Community Rules apply to all content you upload or otherwise submit to this site. Although the recorded conversations were with Miller, from this evidence a rational jury could conclude that Sorrell had agreed with other PMC members, particularly Johnson, about the object of the conspiracy. The district court did not abuse its discretion in refusing to exclude this evidence. R. Crim.

A pattern of racketeering activity requires at least two predicate acts of racketeering related to the enterprise that amount to continued criminal activity.

Thus, a jury could rationally conclude from the evidence that PMC was either directly engaged in or substantially affected interstate commerce. United States v. Feola, 420 U.S. 671, 684 (1975) (All [ 111] requires is an intent to assault, not an intent to assault a federal officer.); United States v. Plummer, 789 F.2d 435, 437 (6th Cir. The Phantom members would then proceed to kill as many of their rivalsas possible.

1961(5); H.J. It typically takes several hours for Whois data to update, and different registrars are faster than others.

2015 11 August, 2015.


The government showed that PMC's purpose was to promote and protect the organization's power, territory, and reputation through the use of intimidation [and] violence by introducing testimony outlining the importance to PMC of earning respect as the baddest motorcycle club. PMC is an outlaw motorcycle club that has chapters in Michigan, Ohio, and six other states.

The Outlaws were established in 1935 and have 119 chapters, including in Dayton, Columbus, East Columbus, Warren, Middletown, Toledo, Sandusky, Canton and Athens, according to the organization'swebsite.

He was sentenced to 102 months in prison. 2015). Brown Conspiracy to Commit Murder in Aid of Racketeering, 18 U.S.C.

The charges and convictions in this case stem from a series of PMC confrontations with rival motorcycle clubs.

1962(d); Assault with a Dangerous Weapon in Aid of Racketeering, 18 U.S.C.

There was also extensive testimony showing that PMC members raided a Hell Lovers bridge-the-gap party in 2013 and that president Johnson instructed members to tear the party up, act as Phantoms. Then, in September 2013, after Sidekicks disrespected Johnson, armed PMC members went on a mission to take Sidekicks' rags by force.

Aug. 4, 2017) (stating that a rational jury could find that defendant acted to preserve standing in a gang because the gang expected its members to retaliate violently when someone disrespected or threatened a fellow member). The sentencing court presided over the trial where the relevant evidence was produced, and it sufficiently probed Jackson's involvement in the conspiracy in selecting the minimal-participant reduction. Sorrell and Schamante also argue that PMC's activities did not affect interstate commerce. To add privacy protection to your domain, do so within your registrar account.

At trial, the jury heard extensive testimony regarding PMC's interstate economic activities, such as paying money toward a national fund and transporting stolen motorcycles across state lines.


What more could you ask for?

The Court noted that its conclusion was based on interpretation of 875 and expressly refused to consider any First Amendment issues. However, [t]he district court retains considerable discretion in deciding how to conduct such an inquiry. United States v. Taylor, 814 F.3d 340, 348 (6th Cir. A district court's decision not to give proposed jury instructions is reviewed for abuse of discretion. Pinkerton v. United States, 328 U.S. 640, 64648 (1946). Id. (quoting Jackson v. Virginia, 443 U.S. 307, 319 (1979)). Johnson, Nicholson, Sorrell, and Schamante next allege that the government did not establish their participation in the pattern of racketeering activity required for a RICO conspiracy conviction.

1962(d); Assault with a Dangerous Weapon in Aid of Racketeering, 18 U.S.C.

Additionally, according to the evidence presented at trial, Johnson blamed the Hell Lovers Outlaw Motorcycle Club for a September 2013 murder of a Phantoms member, and ordered retaliatory murders that were to be carried out in three phases. The charges included RICO conspiracy involving murder, conspiracy to commit murder in aid of racketeering, assault with a dangerous weapon in aid of racketeering, firearms offenses, and assault on federal officers. Sorrell argues that the bills could have been used to impeach government witnesses' testimony because they do not specifically indicate that McGee was shot in the face. To succeed on a Brady claim, a defendant must show: (1) that the evidence in question is favorable, (2) that the state purposefully or inadvertently suppressed the relevant evidence, and (3) that the state's actions resulted in prejudice. United States v. Pennell, 737 F.2d 521, 533 (6th Cir.

2012 27 October, 2012. The possession element of 922(g)(1) can be satisfied by showing constructive possession, which exists if an individual knowingly has the power and the intention at a given time to exercise dominion and control over an object, either directly or through others. United States v. Walker, 734 F.3d 451, 455 (6th Cir. As for Sorrell, at trial the government introduced evidence outlining the importance to PMC of maintaining its reputation as the baddest biker gang and that stealing ragsthe original mission that led to the McGee assaultis how it maintains that reputation. PMC's rival motorcycle clubs in the Detroit area include Hell Lovers and Satan's Sidekicks. Start using the domain today. During the attempted robbery, a Phantom member, Bryan Sorrell (aka PC) shot a Satan Sidekick member in the face.

Official websites use .gov Denial of a mitigating-role reduction is reviewed for clear error.

of conspiracy to commit murder and other racketeering charges.

Brown next asserts that he should have been granted a mitigating-role reduction due to the small extent of his participation in the conspiracy.13 We do not believe that the district court clearly erred in not applying this reduction, because facts on the record support that Brown was actively involved in the conspiracy to murder Hell Lovers.

Jackson was charged with conspiracy to commit murder in aid of racketeering in violation of 18 U.S.C. Thus, even were we to look to 2E1.1 for 2E1.3(a)(2)'s racketeering activity, 2E1.1(a)(2) would take us back to where we started 2A1.5 (Conspiracy or Solicitation to Commit Murder), carrying a base offense level of 33. aid of racketeering. If you wish the domain ownership information to be private, add WhoIs Privacy Protection to your domain. Rule 12(c) then instructs that such motions must be filed by the deadline set by the court, and, if the court does not set a deadline, the deadline is the start of trial. Fed. 18 U.S.C. 2017).

We believe that the 2014 Amendments to the federal rules clarify that for Rule 12 purposes, absent a deadline set by the court, trial does not start until jeopardy attaches. denied, 137 S. Ct. 2231 (2017).

All but one of the defendants was black, and only one African American was seated as a juror in the trial, but Borman dismissed the challenge last month because it wasn't filed on time. Any potential prejudice, therefore, does not substantially outweigh the probative value of this evidence. Exclusion is systematic if it is inherent in the particular jury-selection process utilized. United States v. Suggs, 531 F. App'x 609, 619 (6th Cir. Johnson, Nicholson, Sorrell, Brown, and Jackson next assert that insufficient evidence exists to sustain their convictions for Violent Crimes in Aid of Racketeering (VICAR), 18 U.S.C.

Thus, there is no reason to even rely on aiding and abetting liability for Sorrell. relation to a crime of violence. 2022

We affirm his sentence.

Jackson's conviction for conspiracy to commit murder is most analogous to the federal offense under 18 U.S.C. But a Defendant's state of mind can be proved indirectly from the surrounding circumstances. R. Crim.

Convicted of engaging in a RICO conspiracy and possessing an unregistered short-barrel shotgun. Members of the Outlaws would not comment to the Dayton Daily News, but they said Bowman is a legacy. Prior surveillance had revealed Johnson at the home, and in executing the warrant, agents seized documents indicating that Johnson owned the home.4 The pistols were found in a closet that also held a Phantom vest with President on it. The evidence at trial showed that Johnson served as PMC national president beginning in 2009, ordered the confrontation in Cleveland with the Zulus in 2009, the Omens in 2010, the Satan's Sidekicks in 2013 (which led to the shooting of Leon McGee), and directed the plot to murder Hell Lovers.

The alleged unfair prejudice here is the jury's exposure to [g]un violence involving rival motorcycle clubs. DE 396, Jackson Mot. A minimal-participant reduction is meant to cover defendants who are plainly among the least culpable of those involved in the conduct of a group. USSG 3B1.2 cmt.4. See United States v. Delgado, 401 F.3d 290, 297 (5th Cir. Therefore, 2E1.3(a)(2) instructs the court to cross-reference 2A1.5Conspiracy or Solicitation to Commit Murderwhich has a base offense level of 33.

Nicholson, Sorrell, and Brown, along with other PMC members, staked out a rival's clubhouse, and when Leon McGee emerged, Sorrell and another Phantom attacked.

We disagree. Mich. (Oct. 9, 2000), []. Schamante, Jackson, Brown, and Sorrell each challenge their respective sentences imposed by the district court. ATF is committed to this fight, and committed to working together to keep our citizen safe and our communities livable., The defendants in this case were active members of violent criminal groups, one of which was based in Detroit and operated across numerous, and sometimes distant, states, said Special Agent in Charge Abbate.

924(c); Conspiracy to Commit Murder in Aid of Racketeering, 18 U.S.C.

Matthew Schamante Arsenal Phantom MC Pontiac chapter President.

Because Jackson's conspiracy conviction is covered by the specific Conspiracy or Solicitation to Commit Murder sentencing guidelines in USSG 2A1.5, 2X1.1 is expressly inapplicable. Convicted of conspiracy to commit murder in aid of racketeering.

The evidence at trial also showed that, on Sept. 8, 2013, Antonio Johnson, who was both the National President of the Phantoms and the Three-Star General over the Vice Lords in Michigan, ordered numerous Phantoms, including Christopher Odum, to rob the Satan Sidekicks Motorcycle Club, a rival motorcycle club.

1959(a)(3); Conspiracy to Assault with a Dangerous Weapon in Aid of Racketeering, 18 U.S.C.

922(g)(1). Two weeks later, the defendants filed a motion alleging systematic underrepresentation and requesting disclosure of jury wheel materials, which was referred to the Chief Judge. How do I transfer to another registrar such as GoDaddy?

Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. 18, 2013), []; Administrative Order No. Sorrell's argument that his sentence was improperly scored is the same one raised by Jackson and Brown as to USSG 2E1.3(a)(2) and is rejected for the same reasons. Lastly, the government presented evidence at trial that prior raids ordered by Johnson included firearms and that Johnson was aware that PMC members usually carried firearms on such raids. Salinas v. United States, 522 U.S. 52, 65 (1997); United States v. Fowler, 535 F.3d 408, 421 (6th Cir.

924(c)(2). DAYTON, Ohio Illinois, Texas, New York, North Carolina, Wisconsin and Connecticut were among the dozens of states represented at the funeral of the notorious former international president of the Outlaw Motorcycle Club, Harry Joseph "Taco" Bowman, at the Montgomery County Fairgroundsin Dayton, Ohio, Saturday.

2006)). 2005) (finding association because defendant personally testified that he was a member of the enterprise); United States v. Marino, 277 F.3d 11, 33 (1st Cir. Sorrell punched McGee, and McGee stabbed Sorrell, at which point Sorrell shot McGee. In September 2013, after members of Satan's Sidekicks disrespected Johnson, Johnson instructed PMC members to take Sidekicks' rags by force. 1992). If a party does not move by this deadline, then the party must show good cause as to why the court should consider the untimely motion.

2016) (quoting United States v. Abboud, 438 F.3d 554, 589 (6th Cir.

; McNeil v. Wisconsin, 501 U.S. 171, 175 (1991).

Similarly, Nicholson attended the PMC meeting before the assault on McGee, specifically asked whether Phantoms brought guns, and was present at the scene of the shooting. 2.The only difference is that the interstate commerce requirement in RICO is found in the statute's substantive provision, while in VICAR it is in the definition of enterprise. Compare 18 U.S.C.

In most cases access to the domain will be available within one to two hours of purchase, however access to domains purchased after business hours will be available within the next business day.

If you buy a domain and are unhappy with it, we will accept the return within 30 days and issue a full refund no questions asked.

1998); United States v. Allen, 160 F.3d 1096, 1101 (6th Cir.

A few days later, Odum and another Phantom violently assaulted a prospective member of the Satan Sidekicks during another attempted robbery at a gas station. How do I keep my personal information private. This hides your personal information from the general public. On March 16, 2015, a jury convicted six leaders and members of the Phantoms, many of whom also were leaders and members of the Vice Lords, for various crimes, including the September October 2013 murder plot against the Hell Lovers and the September 2013 shooting of the Satan Sidekicks member.

2015 16 March, 2015. The district court did not err in calculating or imposing any of these sentences. In the General Principles portion of the jury instructions, the district court included Sixth Circuit Pattern Jury Instruction 2.08, which provides jurors guidance on how to infer the mental state of defendants to determine whether the required mens rea elements are met for each charge.10 Counsel for defendants jointly requested that this instruction also state: Speech is protected by the First Amendment. "Gang wars fuel violence in our community, and the resulting drive-by shootings 1993).

R. Evid.

See United States v. Marrero, 651 F.3d 453, 471 (6th Cir. 2014 December, 2014. While I hope I don't have to purchase a premium domain again, I will be happy to work with HugeDomains if I have to purchase another. For the same reasons, this evidence is relevant under Rule 401. In assessing the sufficiency of the evidence, the test is whether, after viewing the evidence in the light most favorable to the prosecution, any rational trier of fact could have found the essential elements of the crime beyond a reasonable doubt. Id. He claims that the district court improperly calculated his base offense level and challenges the application of a 10-year mandatory minimum based on his conviction under 18 U.S.C. Finally, Sorrell was present at the meeting and actually shot Leon McGee. Midway through trial, the court received a note from Juror 11 in which he reported being followed by two people in a car.

Neither argument has merit. There was sufficient evidence presented at trial to sustain each defendant's 924(c) conviction.

Therefore, we review the district court for clear, not plain, error. 28B, Page ID 11230. Sorrell did not raise the Fifth Amendment argument at trial.

The prosecution also introduced evidence of a PMC conspiracy to murder members of the rival Hell Lovers motorcycle club in retaliation for a Phantom's death, though this plan was disrupted when the ATF and FBI executed search warrants on Nicholson's, Johnson's, and another Phantom's homes in October 2013.