Kubberd E., Ueland ., Tronstad ., Risvik E. Attitudes towards Meat and Meat Eating Among Adolescents in Norway: A Qualitative Study. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. Ex1: Tlphone is a masculine noun. Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. He caught a nice fatrabbitthere and put it in his purse. Peek C.W., Dunham C.C., Dietz B.E. Despite the presence ofa female pantherright next door Caption 20,Le Journal - Espces en voie de disparition. This gender difference in cat appreciation may also be evidenced by the tendency of females towards greater grief after cat death  and greater willingness of female French veterinarians to provide analgesia to cats , although these were both also evident for dogs. Caption 53,Manon et Simon - Le masculin et le fminin. One is male and the other is female but I still call my female dog mon chien and if I had a female cat I wouldnt dare call it ma chatte at the risk of being rude. The difference between cohabiting females and males in their attitude to animals may depend on the extent of social dominance in partnerships. Your email address will not be published. In Norway, Sweden and Great Britain there existed the greatest differences between female and male responses, with on average females having a mean index score of 64 and males 57 for those indices significantly affected. There you have it! If they agreed to take part in the survey, the students were asked to give their e-mail address to the volunteer. Accessibility In fact, the word femelle used to describe a female human being in French has a degrading, sexual connotation. Gender Differences in Human-Animal Interactions: A Review. (Dont ask me why) The greater concern of females than males for animal welfare has been enunciated previously by several authors [1,2,4,5,6]. Food avoidance and the reasons for it in male and female students. They were as follows : Students were asked to rate the acceptability of the practices described on a Likert scale of 1, extremely unacceptable, to 5, extremely acceptable. One contributing factor appeared to be the greater association of females than males with pets, and a possible outcome was greater female avoidance of meat consumption, especially red meat. On the other hand, some animal nouns ending in-ndontdouble their final consonant in the feminine, as inun lapin/une lapine(male/female rabbit), but the change in pronunciation still applies. In brief, a call was distributed through relevant organizations, e.g. The fact that eggs were avoided less by females than males, whereas there is much publicity given to inhumane treatment of laying hens, suggests that animal suffering may not be the main driver of food avoidance in women. Impress your friends at trivia night with the knowledge that a male rabbit is called a buck! The same trend is evident for the relationship between F/M Animal Rights Index and the Gender Empowerment Index (Figure 2), with a good correlation except for Ireland. The he-goat has its own name: bouc. Note that whenever you double a final consonant, the normally silent consonant (like the-ninchien) becomes pronounced, as you can hear in the example below: Certains noms masculins vont doubler leur consonne finale. Lerenardfemelle adulte sappellelarenarde. Received 2010 Dec 7; Accepted 2010 Dec 8. Un chiendonne -une chienne, deux "n", "e". The model for data responses included nation, ethnic group (nested within nation), gender, level of education, area of study, place of residence, religious affiliation, food avoidance, reasons why food was avoided and animal protection organisation participation. Sandbox Learning is part of Sandbox & Co., a digital learning company. Tishs question reminds me of Drles de Btes, a series of books for 2 to 6 year old children by French author and illustrator Antoon Krings. The survey was administered via the internet in universities within countries, and 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responses from 102 universities were received.
I.e. This may promote understanding of their different needs in relation to teaching about animals, or to teaching with the aid of animals, and also to animal product consumption. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (, AI 1 Keeping animals for the production of food or clothing, AI 3 Keeping animals for the education of the public in zoos, wildlife parks, AI 5 Using animals for entertainment or sports, AI 6 Operations on animals to improve their health, AI 7 Decoration of animals, such as dying or cutting their hair for aesthetic reasons, AI 9 Removal of a body part, such as tail docking, or declawing, AI 10 Marking animals by branding or ear notching, AI 11 Removal of dead tissue, such as hair/wool removal or foot trimming, AI 12 Killing young animals that are dependent on their parents, AI 13 Allowing animals to experience pain during slaughter, AI 14 Using animals for products after their natural death, AI 15 Killing animals when they are seriously injured or ill, AI 16 Euthanizing healthy and unwanted pets because of overpopulation, AI 17 Depriving animals of their needs for food and water, AI 18 Depriving animals of an appropriate environment to rest, including shelter, AI 19 Inflicting pain, injury or disease on animals, AI 20 Not providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company needed for animals, AI 21 Subjecting animals to conditions and treatment which cause mental suffering, AI 22 Observing animal behaviour in an experiment, AI 23 Experiments to improve animal welfare or health, AI 24 Medical experiments using animals to improve human health, AI 25 Testing cosmetics or household products on animals, AI 26 Operating on living animals for the benefits of human medicine research, AI 27 Increasing animals' reproductive or productive capabilities by genetic changes, e.g., cows producing more milk, AI 28 Increasing animals' health or disease resistance by genetic changes, AI 29 Creating farm animals that feel happy with little stimulation and have little desire to be active, AI 30 Genetic selection of pet animals, such as dogs and cats, to increase their rarity, potential for showing or pedigree value, AI 31 Genetic modification of crops grown for animal foods, AI 32 Killing animals because they are not native to the area in which they live, AI 33 Killing wild animals to stop the spread of diseases that could affect humans, AI 34 Controlling wildlife populations by killing, AI 35 Controlling animal populations by sterilization, AI 36 Destroying the habitat of endangered animal species, AI 37 Destroying the habitat of non-endangered animal species to develop and promote urbanization or crops to feed humans, AI 38 Sacrifice of animals in religious rites, AI 39 Considering some animal species as sacred or good luck symbols or totems, AI 40 Considering some animal species as evil or bad luck, AI 41 Parents displaying cruel treatment of animals in front of their children, AI 42 Inflicting pain or injury on animals as part of cultural traditions, WI 7 Equality for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, Animal Welfare Index = 98.8 6.2 A18 5.2 A13 4.3 A17 2.7 A12 + 2.5 A2 1.6 A9 0.5 A5, Animal Rights Index = 104 2.6 A8 2.4 A1 1.9 A12 1.8 A3 1.6 A13 1.6 A10 1.6 A5 1.5 A4 1.2 A9 1.1 A7 0.8 A.2, Unnatural Practices on Animals Index = 116 4.0 A28 3.9 A30 3.4 A27 3.0 A31 2.5 A3 2.2 A7 2.3 A36 1.9 A8 + 1.9 A12 + 1.9 A10 1.7 A2, Killing Animals Index = 107 3.6 A14 3.4 A22 3.1 A11 3.1 A4 2.8 A15 + 2.6 A36 2.3 A32 2.2 A8 2.0 A1 2.0 A12 + 2.0 A20, Animals in Experimentation Index = 115 5.2 A24 4.0 A26 3.5 A23 + 3.3 A36 + 2.2 A8 + 2.2 A30 + 1.9 A37 1.9 A43 1.8 A33 1.8 A1 + 1.7 A18, Wildlife Index = 92 4.9 A37 4.4 A33 4.1 A36 3.2 A34 + 2.7 A22 2.6 A16 + 2.2 A14 2.0 A20 + 1.9 A25 1.8 A2 1.8 A9, Animals as Spiritual Symbols Index = 108 6.5 A39 5.6 A40 4.9 A2 3.1 A6 2.3 A42 2.2 A9 1.8 A23 + 1.8 A29 1.8 A38 + 1.5 A35 1.3 A28, World Issues Index = 0.17 W4 + 0.16 W10 + 0.16 W11+ 0.16 W12 + 0.16 W5 + 0.15 W13 + 0.15 W1 + 0.15 W2 + 0.1 W7 + 0.09 W3 + 0.09 W6 + 0.08 W9 + 0.04 W8, animals, attitudes, Asia, Europe, gender, welfare. I am Jessica, a native French teacher from the Champagne region, now living in Melbourne. The author actually chose to match the gender of the animal name with the gender of the animal character (the ladybug is a girl because coccinelle in French is feminine; the butterfly is a boy because papillon in French is masculine, etc). The GEM was chosen because it focuses on agency, as indicated by political participation and decision-making power, economic participation/power, and command over economic resources. The avoidance of red meat by females probably relates mainly to their greater concern for their health, with red meat consumption being associated with cardiovascular and cancer risks, in particular. b. Cultural feminist theory suggests that women make moral judgements based on relations rather than universal standards of right and wrong. Lofstrom A. Disclamer: The Drles de Btes books links of this article are affiliate links. Some birds are feminine, as inune hirondelle(a swallow), and some are masculine, as inun perroquet(a parrot). Pifer L., Shimizu K., Pifer R. Public Attitudes Toward Animal Research: Some International Comparisons.
Weblinks to the survey were then distributed to the students by e-mail with an accompanying password. Oh, une coccinelle ! Ive created French Your Way to provide you with different ways to learn French : podcasts, worksheets, articles, French lessons and much more. There were significant relationships between GEM and the ratio of female to male scores on the Animal Welfare, Animal Rights and Animal Experimentation indices, with the strongest relationship being with the Animal Rights Index (Table 5). (= It is the male seahorse which carries the eggs. Expressed as a rank order, World Issues were similar for male and female students, except that females elevated the rights of women from 8th to 4th place. The male and female names of animals in English are extremely important. They also rated equality for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT), human euthanasia, animal protection and professional ethics more highly than males, and peace and security, racial equality and environmental protection received marginally higher ratings. Some rodents are feminine, as inune souris(a mouse), while others are masculine, as inun cureuil(a squirrel). Elle (= meaning that ladybug) a sept points noirs. In a study by Paul and Podberscek , female students rated themselves as having significantly higher levels of emotional empathy with animals than did the male students. 0 && stateHdr.searchDesk ? Dangerous Animals: Elephants, Big Cats, and Cape Buffaloes.
(= That female fox is growling to protect her cubs.).  found that most adolescent vegetarians are female (81%), which was similar to the 78% in our survey. The expenditures (ratio of male to female) measured in our study were compared to Income as possible measures of gender effects on economic activity, but found to be too variable. Le papalionet la mamanlionnese suivent partout. In a similar but smaller survey to the current one, female students had more concern for both animal suffering during life and the reverence for animal life than males .
We can only use the feminine form here because coccinelle is the only referent in the sentence. Gender, Relational Role Orientation and Affinity for Animal Rights. The word for "lion" follows the same pattern aschien/chienne: Tu as vu? The method of extraction of factors was by principal components analysis with Varimax rotation. Infoplease is a reference and learning site, combining the contents of an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an atlas and several almanacs loaded with facts. HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Help Not sure about the geography of the middle east? As you may know, the French you learn in the classroom and the French you hear in the street or in the movies can sometimes sound quite different! The boy exclaims: Oh, a ladybug! 1Centre for Animal Welfare and Ethics, University of Queensland, Australia, 2Department of History of Veterinary Medicine and Deontology, University of Selcuk, Turkey; E-Mail: rt.ude.kucles@ilrimzis, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Iran; E-Mail: ri.ca.tu@ajs, 4Department of Animal Production, University of Leon, Spain; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, 5Department of Bioethics, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea; E-Mail: email@example.com, 6School of Agriculture, Food Science and Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Ireland; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, 7AgroWeb Farm Animal Welfare Network Co-ordinator for Macedonia, Skopje, Macedonia; E-Mail: moc.oohay@aksizdnahajisatsana, 8Institute of Animal Science, Department of Ethology, Prague, Czech Republic; E-Mail: email@example.com, 9Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden; E-Mails: firstname.lastname@example.org (L.K. Beteta H.C. What is Missing in Measures of Women's Empowerment? The questions were chosen by the project team, including country collaborators, to be of international, not regional concern, and to be mutually exclusive. Serpell J.A. sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal So, they are always referred to by il / elle (he / she) without ambiguity. Some animals have specific, distinctive names to describe either the male or the female individual: You will find this in English too: a sheep is the generic name (called mouton in French) ; the male can be called a ram (blier) and the female an ewe (brebis). Weve explored some of the grammatical quirks and intricacies of the animal kingdom. However, with recent development of opportunities for electronic transfer of survey forms and responses, such techniques offer the possibility to investigate global attitudes much more easily than in the past. Captions 27-30,Nader Fakhry - la recherche des derniers lphants - Part 1. We've got you covered with our map collection. An Overview of Surveys on How People View Animal Experimentation: Some Factors that May Influence the Outcome. 1. As well as animal welfare, we found a similar increase in concern for animal rights by females, compared with males.
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(Translation of animal from the GLOBAL French-English Dictionary 2018 K Dictionaries Ltd), (Translation of animal from the PASSWORD French-English Dictionary 2014 K Dictionaries Ltd), a clever action in a game or other situation that is intended to achieve an advantage and usually involves taking a risk, Keeping an open mind and opening your heart: useful phrases with open. Male and female animal names can be quite specialized and hard to remember. , You can learn more aboutMasculine andFeminine in French by listening to the following two episodes of French Your Way Podcast. Easy. In the video below, apart fromle lion, all the names of the endangered speciesla panthre(panther),lagirafe(giraffe),l'autruche(ostrich),andl'hyne(hyena)are feminine in gender, but don't necessarily refer to individual females: Certaines espces ont quasiment disparu, telles quela panthre, autruche, hyne, girafe et lion. According to the 2005 Eurobarometer , males rated the welfare and protection status of pigs and dairy cows more positively than female, whereas they were similar for laying hens. Phillips and McCullough  found no gender differences in attributed sentience of any animal in their survey, but dolphins and cats were not included. Some of these translated versions were translated back and changes made in the case of discrepancies, and in all cases the survey meaning and translation was checked by a third party for accuracy and consistency of meaning, in conjunction with the collaborator. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the
As these nouns only have one grammatical gender, you will need to specify the sex of the animal with the term, Manon et Simon - Le masculin et le fminin, Nader Fakhry - la recherche des derniers lphants - Part 1, Le Journal - Espces en voie de disparition, Nader Fakhry - la recherche des derniers lphants Part 1. Check out this list from Infoplease that includes names for baby animals and what male and female animals are commonly called. Filed Under: Articles & Tutorials Tagged With: adjectives, animal names, animals, female, feminine, French, French lessons, genre, grammar, male, masculine, nouns, vocabulary. Notice: The generic name is strictly either masculine or feminine, as mentioned at the start of this article. Referring to this person/character makes more sense and will limit inconsistencies. FOIA Bethesda, MD 20894, Web Policies In this case, you will need to memorize the gender of the animal along with its name as there is no logic or way of guessing. Je ne peux pas manger sur cette table, elle nest pas propre ! Subsequently Portugal was also excluded because of the low response rates to the survey. Effects of Having Pets at Home on Children's Attitudes toward Popular and Unpopular Animals. Greater ownership of pets by females than males in our survey is supported by the finding of Vidovic et al. International Society for Applied Ethology, for volunteer academic collaborators to organize the survey in their country. Factors Influencing Veterinary Students' Career Choices and Attitudes to Animals. The overall order of World Issues for males (and mean rank and SED mean) was environmental protection (6.5 + 0.03) > animal protection (6.2 + 0.04) > sustainable development (6.0 + 0.03) > reducing poverty (5.9 + 0.04) > peace and security (5.8 + 0.03) > racial equality (5.7 + 0.04) > professional ethics (5.5 + 0.04) > rights of women (5.1 + 0.04) > capital punishment (4.8 + 0.06) > equality for LGBT (4.7 + 0.06) > genetic engineering (4. The longer association of females with pets than males may play a significant role in developing their attitude towards animals. Because binary logistic regression and ANOVA gave similar and more discriminating results than Chi square, and the data either approximated a normal distribution or could be manipulated to a normal distribution, ANOVA was selected because of its flexibility for modelling the data. For example, some countries have a long history of religious instruction supporting both male dominance in society and the use of animals, whereas others do not. According to a survey of Prokop and Tunnicliffe , girls were less favourably inclined than boys to animals that may pose a threat, danger or disease risk to them, which may incline them towards cats and away from pigs that are perceived to pose a disease risk. Je prfre ne pas laisser sortir ma chatte / ma chienne pour ne pas quelle rencontre dautres chats / chiens. A pilot survey was conducted at the University of Queensland to test the methodology for recruitment of questionnaire respondents, out of 100 students that were approached, 50% indicated a willingness to take part in the survey and 17 completed questionnaires were returned. Paul E.S., Podberscek A.L. This was evident in their eating preferences, with more females avoiding meat because of the possible impact on their health. This was only required for one variable, the Animal Welfare index, and a squared function gave the necessary approximately normal distribution. Baxter J., Kane E.W. In our study students in Norway, Sweden and Great Britain were most likely to display gender inequality in attitudes to animal welfare, with female students being generally more concerned about animal issues than male students. As inun prince(a prince) anduneprincesse(a princess), some animal nouns take the suffix-essein the feminine: "Un ne" [a donkey]? Download Masculine and Feminine Gender of Animals list, Your email address will not be published. Our survey found that males were less likely to avoid some meats than females, but those that did were more likely to do so because of animal suffering and the environment than females, who were more likely to do so because of their health. It is generally perceived that women are more sensitive than men to animals welfare, and there is ample evidence of females being more empathetic toward animal issues [1,2,3,4,5,6,7]. Renard, renarde (male fox, female fox) There are actually three ways of doing this, but first we must wonder how relevant it is to specify the gender of the animal. Like all nouns, animal names are strictly masculine or feminine when they refer to the generic name of the species. b. Cette renarde grogne pour protger ses petits. Universities were selected at random if possible, but in some countries a convenience sample was used. Peek et al. The most common way to feminize a noun is to add an-eat the end, and, in manycases, double the final consonant, as inun chien/une chienne(a male dog/a female dog). But you can also say : Gender Equality, Economic Growth and Employment. Available online: Folbre N. Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy. These variables were all normally distributed by the Anderson-Darling test. High values mean greater concern for animals. A survey of Baxter and Kane  which was conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway and Sweden, demonstrated that men hold less egalitarian gender role attitudes than do women. The overall order of sentience (mean rank and SED mean) was similar for males and females (Table 6). The increased concern of women contributes towards, but is not the main driver for, greater avoidance of meat, especially red meat. Lets keep writing. The masculine and feminine gender of animals: Many English students neglect the male and female characteristics of animals. Females rated cats as more sentient than males did.
Phillips and McCulloch  investigated the beliefs of students of different nationalities on both animal sentience and attitudes towards the uses of animals, and found that female students had more concern than males for animal welfare and rights. (These books are also available with audio CDs.) Linear regression of the three different GEM components: (1) Politic participation (proportion of women in the Lower or Single House in parliament), (2) Senior workplace roles (Income, ratio of female to male GDP per capita), and (3) Economic participation (proportion of women in senior positions: legislators, senior officials, managers, professional workers and technical workers) on the relevant indices was performed for each country.