biological control of maize stem borer

Crop losses due to insects in the savannah area of Ivory Coast: a review. The recovery of stemborers parasitized by C. flavipes three years after the release provides clear evidence that the exotic parasitoid is firmly established in the coastal area of Kenya. Stem borers are economically the most important insect pests of maize worldwide. Intensive surveys throughout the year are now being conducted at 3 locations in southwestern Kenya to more accurately measure stemborer mortality caused by C. flavipes. 85: 369-377. Harris K. M. (1962) Lepidopterous stem borers of cereals in Nigeria. Je kan in totaal vijf artikelen kiezen. Insect Science and its Application 4, 11-18. 1995). S. calamistis is reportedly found in low, mid and high elevation maize and sorghum growing regions (Ingram 1958, Nye 1960).

In addition to sampling at the wild sorghum site, seven other maize fields were sampled during the long rains of 1994. Volg je bestelling, The number of female parasitoids liberated at each site was estimated to be between 18,100 and 24,200. Table 1. Thus, it appears that C. flavipes has a fairly wide host range. Alam M. M., Bennett F. D. and Carl K. P. (1971) Biological control of Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Barbados by Apanteles flavipes Cam. Plants infested with all the stemborer species tested (C. partellus, C. orichalcociliellus, S. calamistis and B. fusca) were attractive, and attraction was related to the number and size of the feeding stemborers (Ngi-Song et al. Investigations on male-female attraction demonstrated that C. flavipes males were attracted to conspecfic females, but not to females of the other two species, suggesting that opportunities for interbreeding in nature would be rare (Kimani and Overholt 1995). Agronomie Tropical 22, 1196-1220. Delobel A. Bull. 1994c). is dag en nacht open. Coniesta ignefusalis Hampson (Pyralidae) is an important pest of millet in the Sahelian region of Africa (Nwanze 1991). Door op accepteren te klikken ga je hiermee akkoord.

Approximately 6000 females were released over a period of 4 weeks. Je kunt je cookievoorkeuren altijd weer aanpassen. , LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (August 25, 2010), Publication date Polaszek A. and Walker A. K. (1991) The Cotesia flavipes species complex: parasitoids of cereal stemborers in the tropics. You are listening to a sample of the Audible audio edition. This finding suggests that the population in Mauritius could be a distinct taxon, although interbreeding tests with other C. flavipes populations need to be conducted before reaching a final conclusion. : Wiedenmann R. N., Smith J. W. Jr. and Darnell P. O. : This book, therefore, provides empirical information on methods of testing, selection and evaluation of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae for controlling the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus in maize.

In the 1995 long rains, 29 sites were sampled at the coast. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 42: 1-9. Thus, there is evidence of two biologically distinct populations of C. sesamiae; one that can develop in B. fusca, and one that cannot. The apparent shift in the abundance of the two Chilo species during the recent past suggests that the exotic stemborer may be displacing the indigenous species. Please try again. Ngi-Song A. J., Overholt W. A., Njagi P. G. N., Dicke M., Ayertey J. The effect of such a displacement on crop damage is unknown. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85: 379-386. Indigenous parasitoids of African stemborers have expanded their host ranges to include the exotic stemborer, but do not appear to effectively regulate densities at acceptable levels (Oloo and Ogedah 1990, Kfir 1992). If our hypothesis is correct that the establishment in the Lake Victoria region resulted from parasitoids that escaped in 1991, then C. flavipes has had two years longer to colonize this area than the coast. Appl. Res. Biosystematics of the Cotesia flavipes complex (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): interspecific hybridization, sex pheromone and mating behaviour studies. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations, Select the department you want to search in. Ook willen we cookies plaatsen om je bezoek aan en onze communicatie naar jou makkelijker en persoonlijker te maken. These results contrast with those found in earlier studies which indicated that C. orichalcociliellus was the predominant species, or equally abundant as C. partellus (Mathez 1972, Warui and Kuria 1983), although there is no evidence that total stemborer densities have changed (Overholt et al. During colonization, dispersal has a counteracting influence on increases in density. : betaal facturen of No establishments were reported in either of the programmes. of Entomology PhD Thesis. Please try again. Oloo, G. W. and Ogedah K. (1990) The incidence of Chilo partellus (Swinh.) Laboratory studies revealed that C. partellus, C. orichalcociliellus, and S. calamistis were acceptable and suitable hosts for parasitization by C. flavipes and C. sesamiae (Ngi-Song et al. Res. (1953) A revision of the African species of Sesamia Guenee and related genera (Agrotidae - Lepidoptera). A. Try again. All three stemborers species found at the coast, C. partellus, C. orichalcociliellus, and S. calamistis, were parasitized (Overholt, unpublished data), confirming the results of previous laboratory studies (Ngi-Song et al. C. flavipes is native to the Indo-Australian region, but has been widely introduced against various stemborers in the neotropics, several Indian Ocean Islands, and also been redistributed within Asia (Overholt et al. ORSTOM Series Biologie 10, 11-16. Information bulletin 33. When C. partellus was stung by both parasitoids, C. flavipes emerged in nearly all cases, regardless of which parasitoid had stung the host first (Sallam, unpublished). 184 p. Bosque-Perez N. A. and Mareck J. H. (1990) Distribution and composition of Lepidopterous maize borers in souther Nigeria. Ook willen we cookies plaatsen om je bezoek aan en onze communicatie naar jou makkelijker en persoonlijker te maken. (1992) Laboratory rearing and biology of the parasite Cotesia flavipes (Hymemoptera: Braconidae) using Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) as a host. Using your mobile phone camera - scan the code below and download the Kindle app. Kfir R. (1994) Attempts at biological control of the stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in South Africa. 1995) (Table 1). (1995) Suitability of African gramineous stemborers for development of Cotesia flavipes and C. sesamiae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). 51-60. (1989) Bioenergetics of Apanteles flavipes Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of Porthesia scintillans Walker (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). Host suitability of Africa gramineous stemborers for Cotesia flavipes1. Journal of Eco nomic Entomology 83(1): 84-88. and Lixophaga diatraeae T. T. Entomophaga 16, 151-158. The noctuids, Busseola fusca (Fuller) and Sesamia calamistis Hampson, are widely distributed in sub-saharan Africa and reach damaging levels in some locations. Functional response experiments in large field cages demonstrated that C. flavipes successfully attacked more hosts at all host densities examined (Sallam unpublished). Host suitability of Africa gramineous stemborers for. Seasonal parasitism at the seven recovery sites was and ranged from 0.3% to 3.0%. C. flavipes was found at 4 of the sites, but parasitism was low ranging between 0.05% and 1.0% (Overholt unpublished). There is some evidence of this occuring with C. flavipes in East Africa. Environmental Entomology 24(4): 978-984. Biological control: a sustainable solution to crop pest problems in Africa. (Pyralidae) and the contribution of natural enemies to its mortality under intercropping system in Kenya. Sesamia cretica Lederer is found in northeast Africa, the middle east and Mediterranean Europe and is considered to be a major pest of sorghum where it occurs (Tams and Bowden 1953). Ibadan, Nigeria. Because two or more stemborer species often occur sympatrically in Africa, it was important to determine the host range of C. flavipes prior to its release. 1995). Dept. This book is useful especially to professionals in agriculture, biological and environmental sciences. This book addresses the susceptibility of different larval instars; effect of temperature on fungal development and virulence; food consumption of fungus treated larvae; compatibility of fungal isolates with insecticides; effect of exposure methods and diets on larval mortality; and control of stem borer using effective isolates. Scheibelreiter G. K (1980) Sugar-cane stem borers (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae and Noctuidae) in Ghana. There was an error retrieving your Wish Lists. B. fusca is a serious pest of maize at high elevations in East and southern Africa (Harris 1992). Colonial Research Study 31. 1994c). ICIPE Science Press. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85: 525-530. Stem borers are economically the most important insect pests of maize worldwide. and Chilo orichalcociliellus Stand and Sesamia calamistis Hmps. 1994a) and is now found throughout East and southern Africa, where it is considered to be one of the most important stemborers in maize and sorghum. mehdi esfandiari Nwanze K. F. (1991) Components for the management of two insect pests of pearl millet in Sahelian West Africa. Data for E. saccharina: Overholt unpublished. : Chilo orichalcociliellus Strand occurs in the coastal area of East Africa at elevations < 600 m (Nye 1960). This book addresses the susceptibility of different larval instars; effect of temperature on fungal development and virulence; food consumption of fungus treated larvae; compatibility of fungal isolates with insecticides; effect of exposure methods and diets on larval mortality; and control of stem borer using effective isolates. Rome. Descriptions of the larvae and pupae of some important lepidopterous stemborers of cereals. 1987. Bulletin of Entomological Research 43, 645-678. Major arthropod pests of food and industrial crops of Africa and their economic importance. Release of cocoons was considered to be a preferred method as it maximized the effective lifespan of the adults in the field. betaalt niet voor reviews. Studies on the host finding ability of the two parasitoids for aestivating and non-aestivating larvae revealed that neither parasitoid was capable of locating aestivating larvae in dried maize stems (Mbapila 1997). 1995, Ngi-Song et al. Overholt W. A. Ngi-Song, C.O. : Als een reviewer door een andere partij is vergoed, staat dit in de review zelf. Kimani-Njogu, J. Mbapila, M.N. 1995). 191 p. Mathez F. C. (1972) Chilo partellus Swinh., C. orichalcociliella Strand (Lep., Crambidae and Sesamia calamistis Hmps. 1996). We work hard to protect your security and privacy. A third attempt to introduce exotic parasitoids for control of C. partellus was initiated in Kenya in 1991 by the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) (Overholt 1993). A. and Lwande W. (1996) Volatile infochemicals used in host and host habitat location by Cotesia flavipes Cameron and Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), larval parasitoids of stemborers on graminae. Bioremediation of Pesticide Contamination. Additionally, a third species, C. chilonis, was included in the study as it was considered to be closely related to C. flavipes and C. chilonis (Polaszek and Walker 1991), and has also been the subject of introductions into Africa (Bordat 1983, Kfir 1994). en Scheltes P. (1978) Ecological and physiological aspects of aestivation-diapause in the larvae of the two pyralid stalk borers of maize in Kenya. C. flavipes was recovered at only one site. Preliminary results indicate that approximately 83% of the B. fusca larvae exposed to this population of C. sesamiae are successfully parasitized (Ngi-Song unpublished). Journal of Economic Entomology 85, 518-529. Warui C. M. and Kuria J. N. (1983) Population incidence and the control of maize stalk-borers Chilo partellus (Swinh.) pg. Our payment security system encrypts your information during transmission. Recently, we have initiated a colony of C. sesamiae collected from B. fusca in western Kenya. In South Africa, 13 exotic parasitoids were introduced from 1977 to 1993 (Kfir 1994). Sesamia calamistis occurs throughout sub-saharan Africa but is only a serious pest of cultivated cereals in West Africa (Bosque-Perez and Mareck 1990). Als we je account op een ander apparaat herkennen, hoef je niet opnieuw de keuze te maken. 48 pp. Bekijk de voorwaarden Intrinsic and extrinsic competition between C. flavipes and C. sesamiae were investigated in various laboratory and field studies. C. orichalcociliellus was the most abundant species in Pennisetum purpureum, a native grass grown as a forage crop. We bieden verschillende opties aan voor het bezorgen of ophalen van je bestelling. A more thorough survey was conducted in the area in June/July 1994 and C. flavipes emerged from C. partellus collected at seven locations in the same area (Omwega et al. Many stemborers occur in Africa, but only a few species are economically important in maize, millet or sorghum. As these two parsasitoids fill an ecologically very similar, if not homologous, niche, it is anticipated that local displacement may occur in areas where C. partellus is the predominant stemborer. De controles gebeuren automatisch, al kijken er soms mensen mee. As an alternative strategy, insect pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae have currently shown great potential in an integrated management of stem borers. Thus, if adults which emerged in the laboratory were released, a significant portion of their adult life span could have passed before liberation, particularly if release sites were distant from the laboratory. Host range studies were also conducted on Cotesia sesamiae, an indigenous parasitiod which is closely related to C. flavipes and fills an ecologically similar niche. Insect Sci. Entomol. PhD Thesis. Based on evidence from surveys conducted prior to 1994 and on electrophoretic evidence, it was concluded that the most likely possibility was that C. flavipes escapted from a colony maintained at Mbita Point in 1991 (Omwega et al. Learn more. ASIN During the following short rains, 21 sites were sampled, and C. flavipes was found at seven. Alle prijzen zijn inclusief BTW en andere heffingen en exclusief eventuele Oviposition, development and searching behaviour of Cotesia flavipes Cameron and Cotesia sesamiae (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in relation to aestivating and non-aestivating Chilo spp. B. fusca and E. saccharina were aceptable for ovipostion, but no parasitoid progeny developed to maturity in either host. For example, the shape of the scuto-scutellar-sulcus on the pronotum separated males and females of C. chilonis from the other two species, and the rugosity of propodeum separated C. sesamiae from the other species. Je ziet alleen de artikelen en promoties die beschikbaar zijn in Nederland. 199 p. Mbapila, J. and Overholt, W. A. In Uganda, Girling (1978) reported that the pest status of E. saccharina changed radically in the early 1970s. Tropical pest management 34(4): 455-459. 12: 673-678. Onze klantenservice After viewing product detail pages, look here to find an easy way to navigate back to pages you are interested in. Youdeowi, A. Adult C. flavipes live only a few days (Wiedenmann et al. Senthamizhselvan M. and Muthukrishnan J. Borer ponctue de la canne a sucre a Madagascar par un parasite introduit: Apanteles flavipes Cam.

Kfir, R. (1995) Parasitoids of the African stem borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), in South Africa. International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE), Nairobi, Kenya. However, recently completed studies at ICIPE have shown that C. partellus larvae consume more maize on a daily basis, and during the entire larval lifetime, than C. orichalcociliellus (Ofomata, unpublished). Her Majesty's Stationary Office. Insect Sci. At all temperatures, the intrinsic rate of population increase of C. flavipes was higher than C. sesamiae, suggesting that the exotic parasitoid was capable of responding more rapidly to changes in host density (Mbapila 1994). (1995) Evidence of the establishment of Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera: Bracondiae) in continental Africa. (1960) The insect pests of graminaceous crops in East Africa. Mexico, D. F. Centro Internacional de Majoramiento de Maiz y Trigo. 1Data for C. partellus, C. orichalcociliellus, S. calamistis and B. fusca: Ngi-Song et al.

1994b, Khan unpublished). 1989. Several grasses not infested with stemborers proved to be attractive C. flavipes and C. sesamiae, but infested plants provoked a stronger response (Ngi-Song et al. It was formerly considered to be an important pest in coastal Kenya and Madagascar (Mathez 1972, Warui and Kuria 1983, Delobel 1975a), but its pest status has changed with the establishment of the exotic stemborer, C. partellus. Van Hamburg H. (1979) The grain-sorghum stalk-borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): seasonal changes in adult populations in grain sorghum in the Transvaal. Applic. Biocontrol news and information 15(2): 19N-24N. The present paper reviews the studies that were conducted on C. flavipes at ICIPE prior to and after release in Kenya, and to provide evidence of its establishment in Kenya and in Tanzania. Data from the 1996 long rains cropping season has not yet been completely analyzed, but the number of recoveries of C. flavipes increased dramatically and it was the most abundant parasitoid at 5 of the 11 sites it was recovered. Bulletin of Entomological Research 80, 363-368. , Publisher The results of these studies suggest that C. flavipes must locate non-aestivating larvae in wild host plants in order to survive during non-cropping seasons. (1970) An annotated list of the parasites of graminaceous stem borers in East Africa, with a discussion of their potential in biological control. , ISBN-13 Omwega C. O., Kimani S. W., Overholt W. A and Ogol C. K. P. O. 1980 Folwell Ave. Entomophaga 15, 241-274. Als we je account op een ander apparaat herkennen, hoef je niet opnieuw de keuze te maken. 1996-2022,, Inc. or its affiliates. Sorry, there was a problem loading this page. Prior to release, it was essential to be able to reliably distinguish C. flavipes from C. sesamiae. Chemical control is often not successful because of the concealed feeding behavior of the insect. In an artificial laboratory setting, C. flavipes would parasitize aestivating larvae when the host and parasitoid were placed in close proximity. 1971). reared at difference temperatures on Chilo partellus. 1994c). In the southern coastal area of Kenya (0-500 m), C. partellus was by far the most abundant species in maize, sorghum, and two wild grasses, Sorghum arundinaceum, and Panicum maximum, typically accounting for > 80% of the stemborers collected. Seshu Reddy K. V. (1983) Sorghum stem borers in eastern Africa. 1994a). Lees er meer over in ons cookiebeleid. The host finding behaviours of C. flavipes and C. sesamiae were investigated by examining the responses of the parasitoids to volatile odours from stemborers, plants and by-products of stemborer feeding. In the long rainy season of 1993 (March-July), C. flavipes was released at three locations in the coastal area of Kenya over a period of 6-8 weeks (Overholt et al. Bulletin of Entomological Research 68, 471-488. We controleren wel eerst of ie voldoet aan onze reviewvoorwaarden en niet nep is. Formerly, it was restricted to wild hosts, but then expanded its host range to include maize, sorghum and sugarcane.