forestry supplies near rome, metropolitan city of rome

Available online at: (accessed December 01, 2020). Wood is a renewable resource, and can be harvested sustainably and processed into materials with low embedded energy and high carbon content, substituting for other energy-intensive materials. Domestic demand for pellets has remained stable because there is almost no domestic consumption for electricity generation. It is also likely that the shift of research funding to accelerate virus recovery will significantly reduce funding for forest related programs and conservation (Bates et al., 2020). The longer-term impact of canceled scientific and technical conferences and the inability to gather and share knowledge is harder to gauge. FRA (2020a). Radeloff, V. C., Hammer, R. B., Stewart, S. I., Fried, J. S., Holcomb, S. S., and McKeefry, J. F. (2005). A large proportion of the workforce recovering or quarantined significantly stresses the entire system (Thompson et al., 2020). Department of Finance Canada (2020). 118:102253. doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2020.102253. Rev. Ottawa: Canadian Forest Service. doi: 10.2105/ajph.2020.305744. COVID-19 and Indigenous Peoples [Online]. The Canada Emergency Wage Subsidy provided limited benefit to the forestry sector. (2019). 248:108665. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108665, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Belval, E. J., Stonesifer, C. S., and Calkin, D. E. (2020). The authors wish to thank Charlie Blinn, University of Minnesota; Margot Downey and Maureen Whelan, Natural Resources Canada; Susan Charnley, John Crockett, R. Kasten Dumroese, Jeffrey Prestemon, and Nicole Williams, United States Forest Service; Matthew Lowe, Timberland Investment Resources; Darren Miller and Kirsten Vice, National Council of Air and Stream Improvement; Derek Nighbor and Kate Lindsay, Forest Products Association of Canada; Tim OHara, Forest Resources Association; Daowei Zhang, Auburn University for providing information and insights; and Jrgen Blaser, Bern University, and Patrick Hardcastle for their insights and assistance. Available online at: (accessed December 02, 2020). Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada. Campground reservations in Alberta provincial parks increased in 2020 as people sought respite from isolation. Available online at: (accessed December 01, 2020). As of August 2020, three lumber mills and five pulp/paper mills in Western Canada closed or reduced capacity. North American Forest Industry Capacity. 27, 132139. CRS. Vienna: International Union Forest Research Organizations. Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural America. The United States Forest Service recognizes that there is an opportunity to capitalize on new visitors and educate them on proper use of their public land, especially since there are many health benefits that could result from use (Crockett, 2021). FAO (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on the Federal Research and Development Enterprise. Contractors were allowed to continue harvesting during the pandemic in order to support employment. Pennsylvania state parks, for example, are contemplating user fees, a departure from long-standing tradition of free access (Howard, 2020). Derks, J., Giessen, L., and Winkel, G. (2020). Impacts of COVID-19 On Wood Value Chains and Forest Sector Response: Results from a Global Survey 2020. Government spending is a larger factor than any other economic sector; immediately the question is whether emergency economic interventions will continue to provide economic stability. Vancouver, BC: Indigenous Services Canada. US Census Bureau (2021). Public Health Pract. The importance of these measures was borne out by the several returning Canadian wildland firefighters who tested positive for COVID-19 after assisting in the extreme fire season in the United States under mutual-aid agreements (Stanturf, 2020). The new Biden administration in the United States is reversing many policies of the previous Trump administration, including rejoining the Paris climate accords, supporting the World Health Organization, and signing on to the global vaccination effort (COVAX). For example, the major land management agencies collected US$442 million in 2019 for recreation fees and US$217 million in timber receipts. Ottawa: Forest Products Association Canada. State parks in the United States are facing multiple threats to their funding as COVID-19 strains budgets. Vice President, Forestry Programs. Natl. For. Davey, M. (2020). The effect on lumber demand should be substantial as a median-sized single-family home uses about three times more lumber than the median multi-family building (Coskren, 2020). Ottawa: Natural Resources Canada. Forisk Consulting (2020). A questionnaire (see Supplementary Material) was used to solicit information from interviewees. Policy Econ. In the face of the pandemic, however, the border was closed for most traffic in March 2020, and remained a barrier to non-essential travel into 20211. (2021). Front. New York, NY: United Natiuons Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Research Social Scientist. Forests 11:1214. President and CEO, Forest Products Association of Canada. NPHA (2020). Figure 3. The overall impact was limited and probably wont last as many travel restrictions were lifted by 2021. Washington, DC: Wildfire Today. Physical distancing was a critical safety and health measure imposed on manufacturing facilities, but it was often difficult to maintain the recommended 2-meter distance between workers in facilities such as sawmills. Ownership patterns differ, with implications for forest management and the regulatory environment; most forests in Canada are the responsibility of provinces and territories (defined as Crown land), with operational management done under concession (NRCan, 2018; Gilani and Innes, 2020). NRCan (2018). USDOI (2020). Forest Landscape Restoration as a Key Component of Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation. The Impact of COVID-19 on the Forestry Sector 2020 [Online]. The National Park Service has about 500 concessionaires in 100 park units, employing around 25,000 full-time and seasonal employees. The State of Canadas Forests. Comparing the impact of forest walking and forest viewing on psychological states. Sci. Science 368, 447447. The wildfire picture in the United States was quite different, with California experiencing the worst fire year on record; 9,639 fires burned 1,779,730 ha (NIFC, 2020). Available online at: / (accessed December 01, 2020). In the Northwest, lumber demand increased with spruce, pine, and fir lumber composite prices rising 239% (Culbertson, 2020). More people were asked for an interview than responded. Available online at: (accessed December 01, 2020). (2020). Until the development of effective vaccines, the only way to prevent spreading was by reducing human contact. Demographic trends, the wildlandurban interface, and wildfire management. The Nature Based Solutions to Climate Change provides C$3.16 billion over 10 years, starting in 20212022, to NRCan to partner with provinces, territories, and other stakeholders to plant two billion trees. Policy 36, S94S137. In Canada, almost all Indigenous communities have pre-existing emergency preparedness plans, and they have been updated and implemented to deal with the current pandemic. Washington, DC: US Department of the Interior. Stark, C. (2020). CCFM (2017). ORR Member Survey Shows Pandemics Catastrophic Impact to Outdoor Recreation Industry [Online]. These trends were supported by fiscal policy, including immediate stimulus, historically low interest rates, and potentially longer-term support for infrastructure construction (Hancock Natural Resources Group, 2020). Resolute Forest Products to produce cellulose filaments in Quebec [Online]. Emergency Coronavirus Relief Act of 2020. Addressing these safety concerns was a priority for NRCan in the early days of the pandemic, and P&Ts agencies developed rigorous protocols to protect rural communities, especially Indigenous peoples (Stanturf, 2020). Vice, K. (2020). For example, during the early months of the pandemic, 26% of people visiting parks around Burlington, Vermont had rarely, if ever, visited nature in the previous year (Grima et al., 2020). Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. This price decline was short-lived; demand has since increased substantially and lumber prices again hit seasonal high prices (Figure 3). Indigenous tourism growth has outpaced overall Canadian tourism activity (Fiser and Hermus, 2019), but with the pandemic, it came almost to a complete standstill. Rep. SRS-204. (2020). Change 10, 647653. Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 forced confinement. A messsage from the Secretary.

(2021). Table 2. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243344. Corlett, R. T., Primack, R. B., Devictor, V., Maas, B., Goswami, V. R., Bates, A. E., et al. Fire 3:38. doi: 10.3390/fire3030038, Tollefson, J. One short-term response was hoarding some paper products, for example toilet paper (Janda, 2021). For. The CoViD-19 pandemic and wildfire smoke: Potentially concomitant disasters. Edwards, P., Sutton-Grier, A., and Coyle, G. (2013). Available online at: (accessed December 02, 2020). Available online at: (accessed December 01, 2020).

(2015). Relatedly, there has been an upsurge in the sale of hunting and fishing licenses and outdoor equipment (Miller, 2020). (2020a). Both countries have proposed to scale-up tree planting, on the order of billions of trees (Mansuy, 2020; Mansuy et al., 2020; White House, 2020). doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2012.02.002. Table 1. Alberta Camping Reservations Skyrocketed 5000% During Pandemic [Online]. Trends in bioconversion of lignocellulose: biofuels, platform chemicals & biorefinery concept. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. The role of ecosystems in mitigation and management of Covid-19 and other zoonoses. Ottawa: Forest Stewardship Council. A poll (Harris Poll, 2020) suggested that nearly two in five urban residents in the United States considered moving to a less crowded place. Lumber Prices Continue to Freefall [Online]. doi: 10.1080/08958370600985875. The editor and reviewer's affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. British Columbia had been particularly hard hit by the economic recession, with almost 30% of production capacity idled or closed due the drop in prices for lumber (EDC, 2020). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Ecol. Risk reduction activities, such as prescribed burning and trimming vegetation near power lines, slowed due to social distancing policies; prescribed burning was suspended in most regions (Heller, 2020). (2020). Science 369, 379381. The reduction of short-lived chemical species in the United States, however, had minimal impact on global levels (Forster et al., 2020). Officials Cut Back on Controlled Burns Due to COVID-19 [Online]. World Bank (2020). 192, E1098E1100. Table 4. People relocating to suburbs and rural areas, where housing is less expensive or simply to access more outdoors, will fuel this demand. Urban Green. 57:126920. doi: 10.1016/j.ufug.2020.126920, Le Qur, C., Jackson, R. B., Jones, M. W., Smith, A. J., Abernethy, S., Andrew, R. M., et al. Colfer, C. J. P., Sheil, D., and Kishi, M. (2006). Clim. Beginning in 20212022, C$631 million will be provided over 10 years to restore degraded ecosystems, protect wildlife, and improve land and resource management practices. The Canadian government on 30 November 2020 released an economic plan that included funding for the forest sector (Department of Finance Canada, 2020). (2020). Three interrelated themes are in play: Build Back Better, Green/Low-Carbon Economy, and Forest Restoration. Over 45 technical conferences were canceled or postponed as of August 13, 2020 (CFI, 2020) including key forest policy meetings such as the Convention on Biological Diversity post-2020 targets and the 2020 UN Climate Change Conference (Corlett et al., 2020). Salvage operations in western Canada following wildfires and bark beetle outbreaks proceeded (Vice, 2020). Canadian International Merchandise Trade. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. New COVID-19 Update for Certification Bodies [Online]. Available online at: (accessed December 01, 2020). 19, 67106. American Loggers Council (2020). Executive Order on Establishing the One Trillion Trees Interagency Council. Our results can provide a framework for assessing long-term effects over the next decade.

Bruton, M. (2020). 38, 522550. Conserv. Canadian producers are highly price sensitive and because fully 80% of Canadas forest products exports are to the United States, price volatility in the United States affects Canadas forest industry (EDC, 2020). The number of cases was less than 200 between March and October, rising to 600 around the beginning of 2021 (Source: Nicole Williams, Deputy Pandemic Coordinator, United States Forest Service). An additional US$1.9 trillion financial package was passed in March 20021 (New York Times, 2021). Bates, A. E., Primack, R. B., Moraga, P., and Duarte, C. M. (2020). Perhaps the pandemic has provided an opportunity to increase understanding of the importance of sustainably managed forests for the myriad benefits they provide, including health benefits (Colfer et al., 2006). Nat. The United States Forest Service is contemplating how to respond to an Executive Order on the Trillion Trees Initiative (Dumroese, 2020). As USFS Chief Victoria Christiansen said about impacts on USFS recreation sites, Every day is like a weekend, and every weekend is like the Fourth of July (Charnley, 2020). Urban residents flooded into nearby rural areas including public lands. Currently the Green/Restoration economy in the United States is estimated to directly employ about 126,000 jobs and indirectly an additional 95,000 jobs with $US 24.5 billion in total economic activity (Bendor et al., 2015). National Wildland Fire Situation Report [Online]. The voluntary and imposed social measures intended to control virus spread accelerated existing trends in consumer behavior, specifically remote working and learning and on-line buying. This allowed most management and manufacturing to continue, while taking measures to protect workers and the public. Copyright 2021 Stanturf and Mansuy. Forest Resources of the United States, 2017: A Technical Document Supporting the Forest Service 2020 RPA Assessment. NRCan (2020a). Essential travel, including movement of goods, was exempted from border closure. Charnley, S. (2020). Additionally, we suggest the pandemic provides some opportunities for a shift in the global development paradigm toward greater sustainability and a greener, more inclusive economy. Abrams, J., Bliss, J., and Gosnell, H. (2014). More than 80% of recreation sites were kept open over the year, with dispersed recreation sites and wilderness areas seeing the most significant increases (USFS, 2021). Forestry research is heavily dependent on field measurements and the pandemic reduced the length of the field season and added costs and time, for example sending multiple vehicles instead of a single vehicle to transport crews to the field. Alberta Tourism Market Monitor [Online]. For example, southern yellow pine lumber price was $US 569/MBF on October 16, a drop of 17% from the $US690/MBF the previous week (Greene, 2020). FPAC (2020). USFS (2021). The immediate response was to increase production and switch to producing only large consumer packages. The COVID-19 pandemic affected forests and forest-dependent people globally in multiple ways. Supply and demand shocks in the COVID-19 pandemic: an industry and occupation perspective. Association between forest and greenspace walking and stress-coping skills among workers of Tsukuba Science City, Japan: a cross-sectional study. Outmigration from cities into rural areas due to the COVID-19 pandemic could have multiple impacts on rural communities near forests by further stressing services (Mueller et al., 2021), as well as on forest management, specifically from exacerbating the impacts of expanding the wildland-urban interface (WUI) on wildland firefighting, wildlife conflicts, and changing expectations of forest management (Radeloff et al., 2005; Hammer et al., 2009; Abrams et al., 2014; Mansuy et al., 2019). Auburn, AL: Auburn University. CRS (2020b). [Online]. Importantly, both Canada and the United States early on declared the forest sector essential, allowing most work to continue although worker safety measures increased costs and delayed or postponed some forest management and manufacturing activities. The risk was low since the activities were conducted outside, following safety protocols. (2020). Initial Assessment of the Impact of COVID-19 on Sustainable Forest Management in Canada and the USA. Figure 4. Nat. The impact of COVID-19 on the management of European protected areas and policy implications. Nikolopoulos, K., Punia, S., Schfers, A., Tsinopoulos, C., and Vasilakis, C. (2020). Brampton: Pulp and Paper Canada. [Online]. Econ. McKinsey (2020). The peer reviewed literature provided background information to establish a baseline in an effort to assess the magnitude of the effects of the pandemic apart from ongoing trends. The two countries together account for significant percentages of global production of pulp, paper, and solid wood products (Prestemon et al., 2015; FAOSTAT, 2020). (2021). Change 10, 913919. Individual campsites, group camping areas, comfort camping and backcountry camping reservations are included.

Ecol. [Epub ahead of print]. Physical distancing and isolation increased on-line shopping, remote working and learning; rather than emerging as novel drivers of change, these actions largely accelerated existing trends. doi: 10.1080/08941920802714042. Washington, DC: National Park Hospitality Association. doi: 10.1080/13504851.2020.1809626. Importantly, the early response of both countries to the pandemic was to declare forest management and forest products manufacturing as essential activities.

In both countries there is momentum for directing stimulus and recovery spending beyond meeting immediate needs toward targeting infrastructure development. Thompson, M. P., Bayham, J., and Belval, E. (2020). Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture. The impact has been estimated at US$2 billion from revenue losses at the end of the 20192020 season and an expected drop in future season pass sales (Bruton, 2020). (2019). Washington, DC: World Economic Forum. Mask wearing is another method for reducing virus transmission but cloth masks provide almost no protection from particulates in smoke (PM2.5) that cause respiratory distress. J. U.S.A. 118:2019378118. Sci. Canada is the third-most forested country in the world by area with its 347 million ha comprising nearly 9% of the worlds total forest area (NRCan, 2018). Investing in a sustainable recovery could be funded by pricing reforms including taxing carbon and removing fossil fuel subsidies (World Economic Forum, 2020). Forecasting and planning during a pandemic: COVID-19 growth rates, supply chain disruptions, and governmental decisions. Woodsmoke health effects: a review. Asheville, NC: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Southern Research Station.

Rates of COVID-19 are elevated among Indigenous communities globally, including Native Americans in the United States (Yellow Horse et al., 2021). Acad. Bogor: CIFOR. Policy Econ. For. Clim. Forests and Human Health: Assessing the Evidence. A recent survey of the rural western states in the United States is an example of changing expectations; it showed weak support for logging (41%), as opposed to 81% who supported traditional farming and ranching (Farrell et al., 2020). Guidance for Prevention and Management of COVID-19 During Wildland Fire [Online]. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry canceled a jack pine budworm aerial spray program. CFI (2020). Deputy Executive Director. Figure 2. Edmonton: Alberta Tourism. Impacts of the coronavirus pandemic on biodiversity conservation. Gainesville, FL: NCASI. Natural areas in Europe experienced similar challenges from increased use and new visitors; in response, McGinlay et al. Vienna: IUFRO. Closing borders and confining populations to their houses drastically reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. Hanssen, S., Daioglou, V., Steinmann, Z., Doelman, J., Van Vuuren, D., and Huijbregts, M. (2020). Biol. Canada has taken the lead in planning for this transition and has shown the political will to go down this path. Advanced products can be manufactured from cellulose nanocrystals or filaments extracted from woody biomass (CCFM, 2017; Biomass, 2020; Nasseri et al., 2020). Forests and the natural world have not gone unscathed by the pandemic. Walmsley, T. L., Rose, A., and Wei, D. (2020). Washington, DC: US Senate. An integrated assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on Indiana forests. *Correspondence: John A. Stanturf, [emailprotected]; [emailprotected], View all The Green, Green Biomass of Hom [Online].

Similarly, tree planting contracts proceeded.

Conserv. New York, NY: UNFF. Mandated and Voluntary Social Distancing During the Covid-19 Epidemic: A Review. Forests 11:217. doi: 10.3390/f11020217, Bendor, T., Lester, T. W., Livengood, A., Davis, A., and Yonavjak, L. (2015). Dunn, C. A. Some provinces operated their programs at reduced capacity; Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Nova Scotia prioritized forest pest survey and control activities, focusing on areas that could be accessed within day trips. London: IIED. Restoring degraded forests in the United States and Canada could potentially contribute to the Green Economy, reduce carbon emissions, sequester carbon, adapt to climate change and create jobs (Stanturf et al., 2015; Mansuy, 2020; Mansuy et al., 2020). doi: 10.1038/s41558-020-0797-x. Greene, J. PLoS One 15:e0243344. The pandemic shone bright lights on two aspects of forestsone, forests are important for social wellbeing and quality of life (Ikeda et al., 2021; Kobayashi et al., 2021), and two, that deforestation and loss of forest habitat increases the risk of zoonotic diseases (Everard et al., 2020; Tollefson, 2020). Canada and the United States are both developed economies with significant forest resources and vibrant forest products industries. Harris Poll (2020). Washington, DC: US Congress. COVID-19 and the decolonization of Indigenous public health. Self-isolation, travel restrictions, and shutting down some forms of economic activity for varying lengths of time, along with mask wearing, were undertaken to try to reduce transmitting the virus. Most of the temporary restrictions were lifted by the end of 2020, but five mills remained idle (Table 4). [Online]. The rise of telecommuting and remote work enabled more people to seek the open space and lower housing costs of rural areas.

Numbers reflect the month the reservation was made, and not the date of stay. Compared to other industries, the forest industry did not face a large change in employment from April to August 2020. Lerman, R. (2020). The southern United States accounts for 98% of wood pellet manufacturing capacity nationally (Wang et al., 2015) with six million metric tons exported in 2018 of the 7.5 million metric tons of wood pellets produced (FAO, 2019). How Coronavirus Will Affect Season Passes, Capacity [Online]. Many of the increased visitors to forests were there for the first time, accompanied by increases in vandalism, damage, and conflicts between user groups. Further potential for carbon sequestration in the forest products sector is being realized with the emergence of innovations such as mass timber construction and cross laminated timber (Smart Cities, 2020). For. In forested areas, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) in collaboration with the Public Health Agency of Canada established guidance to safeguard the health and safety of communities and minimize the potential transmission of COVID-19. An estimated $US44.5 billion annual investment over 20 years, planting 60 billion trees, mostly on private lands, could create 150,000 jobs per year ($US one million invested in reforestation creates 40 jobs (Edwards et al., 2013). Policy Econ. Hammer, R. B., Stewart, S. I., and Radeloff, V. C. (2009). Being outdoors and improving indoor ventilation, however, is recommended for avoiding COVID-19. The immediate economic disruption of COVID-19 on the forest products sector was due to reductions caused by the closure of non-essential industries and workers not being able to remotely perform their activities. National Large Incident Report Year-To-Date. (2020). Wang, W., Dwivedi, P., Abt, R., and Khanna, M. (2015). Policy 111, 717. Scaling up forest landscape restoration in Canada in an era of cumulative effects and climate change. Two pulp/paper mills, 6 sawmills, and a newsprint plant in eastern Canada reduced capacity due to reduced demand and/or COVID restrictions (Table 4). Forest Product Consumption and Production. 22, 777782. Forestry ranked fourth last in terms of share of private sector workers covered by the subsidy (Nighbor, 2020). Mass Timber Reaches for New Heights to Unlock Zero-Carbon Cities [Online]. Reflexive gentrification of working lands in the American West: contesting the Middle Landscape. The impact extended beyond the peak summer vacation season. Corona viruses are primarily spread through the air by coughing and sneezing and close personal contact (NIAID, 2020). Available online at: (accessed December 01, 2020). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Lett. Available online at: (accessed March 15, 2021). Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization. J. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Disease outbreaks could also affect the ability of the firefighting community to respond to multiple fires in an active season (Thompson et al., 2020). U.S. Forest Service National Visitor Use Monitoring Survey Results National Summary Report 2020. UN (2020). Smoke from wildland fire poses a significant health hazard to vulnerable populations, most concerning to those with respiratory problems (Naeher et al., 2007; Henderson, 2020). EDC (2020). Major companies in the United States and other countries have announced plans to continue remote working arrangements well into 2021 or even permanently for some employees (Loten, 2020). Washington, DC: US Forest Service. Tackling the Triple Crisis: Using Debt Swaps to Address Debt, Climate and Nature Loss Post-COVID-19. Environ. In the short-term, students, postdoctoral researchers, and early-career faculty are likely to be impacted by shifts toward virtual or hybrid classes without field labs or by interrupted research.

A low-carbon recovery could initiate significant emission reductions and also create more jobs than would be created by a high-carbon recovery program (McKinsey, 2020). Mill closures in the United States due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Guide to the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act. Biol. Impact: North American Wood Products. The remaining author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Interview with J. Stanturf, October 27, 2020. 2:100074. doi: 10.1016/j.puhip.2020.100074. (2007). Mill closures in Canada due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Glob. Hum. Walpole, E. H., Toman, E., Wilson, R. S., and Stidham, M. (2017). Impact of Covid-19 on the Rural West: Material Needs, Economic Recovery, and Changes in Political Attitudes. Many small seasonal recreational businesses that provide outdoor recreation services or equipment are at risk of bankruptcy.

In response, the state turned to the United States Army (Sierra News Online, 2020). Worker safety measures imposed to reduce contagion affected forest management in the United States. As Wildfires Sweep Through California, COVID-19 Impacts the States Ability to Rely on Inmate Fire Crews. Can. America Outdoors (2020a). Demand increased immediately for hygiene products such as toilet paper, due in part to panic buying by consumers and by employees working from home (Fortune, 2020). Available online at: (accessed December 01, 2020).