how many wars has ukraine been in

This means that with the invasion drawing closer, the visibility of what was going on in the Donbas conflict zone declined.

This provides crucial background for understanding what is happening today.

When faced with conflicting accounts regarding whether a soldiers death or injury occurred in combat, we listed the cause as other. Brendan Hoffman/Getty Images Crisis Group prepared two major datasets on the conflict to support this visual explainer: Crisis Group sourced this data from open sources in Ukraine and Russia from 2020 onward. Later that month, Russia says it will withdraw the troops, but tens of thousands remain.

", President Bill Clinton (from left), Russian President Boris Yeltsin and Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk join hands in 1994 after signing a nuclear disarmament agreement.

The presidential election pits Kuchma's incumbent party led by his hand-picked successor, Viktor Yanukovych, and supported by Russian President Vladimir Putin against a popular pro-democracy opposition leader, Viktor Yushchenko. Protesters chanted, "No to surrender!"

In 1991, with the breakup of the Soviet Union, Ukraine gained independence. The Ukrainians were divided between several independence movements and pro-Communist forces. Putin issues a contentious set of security demands.

Why Luhansk and Donetsk are key to understanding the latest escalation in Ukraine, separatists backed by Moscow took control of two regions in 2014, gas crisis quickly spreads beyond Ukraine's borders, Much of Europe still relies on Russian gas today, Putin finalizes the Russian annexation of Crimea, large-scale assault affects key Ukrainian infrastructure, latest major attack targeted government websites, comedian and actor Volodymyr Zelenskyy is elected president, should instead work with Putin to resolve the crisis, Zelenskyy visits the White House to meet with President Biden, Russia renews its troop presence near the Ukraine-Russia border, orders the families of embassy staff to leave Ukraine, deliver their written responses to Putin's demands, Russia and Belarus begin joint military exercises. Stalins Ukrainian Genocide (1920s and 1930s)-Seeing the Ukraine as a potential trouble spot for Soviet rule, the Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin implemented harsh collectivization rules (private property was brought under government control), resulting in huge negative impact on farm production, resulting in mass starvation in Ukraine.

Yushchenko was declared the official winner and with his inauguration in January of 2005 in Kiev, the Orange Revolution ended.

Although few analysts believe an invasion is imminent, Zelenskyy urges NATO leadership to put Ukraine on a timeline for membership. In 2021-22 two Russian military build-ups along theUkrainian border foreshadowed an escalation, one in March and April 2021 and a second one in December 2021 through February 2022.

As NATO allies contemplate adding central and Eastern European members for the first time, Ukraine formally establishes relations with the alliance, though it does not join.

Furthermore, use of the term may in some cases indicate other causes of death, such as friendly fire or incidents related to unsafe handling of weapons.

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EuroMaidan ProtestsIn February, 2014, in an effort to end the massive protests in Kievs Maidan Square, police snipers fired into the crowds, killing over 100, and causing hundreds more casualties.

The United States reports that initial evidence indicated that the missile was a Russian weapon. Biden announces the deployment of another 2,000 troops from the U.S. to Poland. The Ukraine government and others are blaming the pro-Russian separatist rebels for the shoot-down of the airliner.

They sign the first Minsk agreement, a deal between Ukraine and Russia to quiet the violence under a fragile cease-fire.

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Crisis Group attributed casualties to this category when victims were reported to have suffered shrapnel injuries, or when other information about the circumstances of the death or injury suggested it resulted from shelling. French President Emmanuel Macron and German Chancellor Olaf Scholz travel between Moscow and Kyiv. Ukrainians and Poles fought an eight-month war for control of this area (which would be considered south eastern Poland or northwestern Ukraine). Donbass War/Eastern Ukraine Rebellion (2014-Present)- Following the fall of the government, pro-Russian militias (primarily in Ukraines east), began activities designed to weaken the Kiev governments grip on those areas inhabited more by Russian-speaking Ukrainians. While international organisations provided concrete, triangulated data on civilian casualties and the Ukrainian government issued detailed statements about its reported military losses, statements from de facto officials have been patchy. Finally, military and de facto officials sometimes did not disclose the location and cause of military deaths.

But the agreements were never implemented, and the fighting transformed into a trench war, with roughly 75,000 troops facing off along a 420-km-long front line cutting through densely populated areas.

In a phone call with Trump in July 2019, Zelenskyy requests a visit to the White House to meet with Trump about U.S. backing of Ukraine's efforts to push off Russia.

Over the course of eight years, Ukrainian government forces fought Russian-backed separatists for control over much of the two heavily industrialised regions of Donetsk and Luhansk, also known as Donbas. Biden, speaking with Putin on a phone call, urges Russia not to invade Ukraine, warning of "real costs" if Russia does so. hide caption.

Eventually, on 24 February 2022, the day of the invasion, the OSCE announced it would evacuate its Mission. In December, Ukrainians vote to make their independence official when they approve the declaration by a landslide 92% of votes in favor. ), Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy greets lawmakers during the solemn opening and first sitting of the new parliament, the Verkhovna Rada, in Kyiv on Aug. 29, 2019. There was no unified source for casualties resulting from this conflict.

At the conclusion of this war, Ukraine became a part of the Soviet Union. Protesters begin camping out in Kyiv's Maidan, also known as Independence Square, and occupy government buildings, including Kyiv's city hall and the justice ministry. Russia denies that its troops are on Ukrainian soil, but Ukrainian officials insist otherwise. The government of Ukraine seemed unable to respond militarily, and other nations, such as the United States and other European Union, explored diplomatic and financial ways to punish Russia for this invasion.

The war ruined the area's economy and heavy industries, forced millions to relocate and turned the conflict zone into one of the worlds most mine-contaminated areas. The decision of the Russian governmentto recognize the independence of the two separatist republics on 21 February 2022 effectively put an end to discussions of Minsk implementation. In 2013 and 2014, a new protest movement took to the streets against Yanukovych, due largely to his move to become closer with Vladimir Putins Russia and due to perceptions of corruption. Small arms: a category that includes weapons ranging from rifles to heavy machine guns.

Russia, Ukraine, and the Baltic States: What if Russia is fooling everyone?

Together, the annexation of Crimea and the Russian-backed violence in the east have pushed Ukrainian public sentiment toward the West, strengthening interest in joining NATO and the EU. and some held placards critical of President Volodymyr Zelenskyy.

A public referendum follows, with 97% of voters favoring secession, although the results are disputed. Most of the Ukraine came under German occupation.

The United States, the United Kingdom, and other Western nations began large-scale transfers of arms to Ukraine in January, 2022, to help Ukraine prepare, and also to hopefully deter Moscows possible invasion plans. Ahead of a scheduled impeachment vote on Feb. 22, Yanukovych flees, eventually arriving in Russia.

hide caption. Ukraine's president declared martial law, vowing stiff resistance, as Western powers condemned Moscow's actions. Our two interactive heat maps show military fatalities and civilian casualties (deaths and injuries), broken down by month, and according to the location at which the incident occurred.

NATO places forces on standby the next day, including the U.S. ordering 8,500 troops in the United States to be ready to deploy. Demonstrators wave Ukrainian flags as they gather in central Kyiv, Ukraine's capital, on Oct. 6, 2019, to protest against broader autonomy for separatist territories. Ukraine Insurgency (1944-1956)-Not all Ukrainians welcomed the Soviets back as the Germans retreated. Estimates range from 150,000 to 190,000 troops. hide caption.

Some months saw heavier fighting, and more deaths and injuries than others.

Since the initial battles in what became known as the Donbass War, Russian military involvement has become more and more overt. hide caption. Russian ground forces (apparantly joined by troops of the Belarusan military), crossed the border at multiple points.

Combat between these militias and government forces escalated into what can now be described as a rebellion against the authority of the central government. In October, a court finds her guilty of "abuse of power" during the 2009 negotiations with Russia over the gas crisis and sentences her to seven years in prison, prompting concerns in the West that Ukrainian leaders are persecuting political opponents.

This was the opening move in the latest Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Crisis Group drew on the OSCE SMM daily reports for its data on the number of explosions.

The nationwide protests succeeded when the results of the original run-off were annulled, and a re-vote was ordered by Ukraines Supreme Court for 26 December 2004.

In 10 years as president, Leonid Kuchma helps transition Ukraine from a Soviet republic to a capitalist society, privatizing businesses and working to improve international economic opportunities. Russia's recognition of the two regions' independence set the stage for moving its troops into Ukraine.

hide caption. History of Russian Invasions of Ukraine and other Nations.

Donbas conflict zone: the parts of the Ukrainian oblasts (regions) of Donetsk and Luhansk held by Russia-backed separatists, as well as those parts of Donetsk and Luhansk adjacent to the contact line that have been controlled by the Ukrainian government. Between 100,000 and 150,000 ground, air, and naval forces have mobilized along Ukraines borders with Russia, Belarus (a Russian ally), and the Russian-occupied Transdniester Republic (a separatist region in Moldava).

Combatant & Civilian Fatalities per Community. For centuries, the region that now makes up the independent nation of Ukraine was a part of the Russian Empire and then, after the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, as a part of the Communist Soviet Union. Contact line: the 420km+ strip of land that divided the warring parties, shown on our maps as it was at the start of 2020.

In April, NATO responds with a compromise: It promises that Ukraine will one day be a member of the alliance but does not put it on a specific path for how to do so. Russia continues to build its troop presence on its border with Ukraine.

It also includes victims of landmines or explosive remnants of war, as well as those who died of natural causes queuing at checkpoints to cross into or from Ukrainian government-controlled territory. The State Department orders the families of embassy staff to leave Ukraine on Jan. 23.

In the context of the Russian Civil War, multiple conflicts and sometimes competing Ukrainian independence movements sprang up. In the responses, officials say they cannot bar Ukraine from joining NATO, but they signal a willingness to negotiate over smaller issues like arms control. Yanukovych is elected president in February. He promotes reform, including measures to address corruption and lessen Ukraine's dependence on Russia for energy and financial support.

Also, in Ukraine, (and throughout the Soviet Union), Stalins secret police, the NKVD, conducted mass killings of anyone considered to be a threat to Stalins rule.

The final results showed a clear victory for Yushchenko, who received about 52% of the vote, compared to Yanukovychs 44%.

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Shelling: an incident generally involving artillery or mortar fire. Civilian casualty data in this heat map includes those killed and injured by live fire in artillery or mortar strikes, or by bullet wounds from rifles or heavy machine guns. Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

Both these phases also saw an increase in reports that the OSCE Missions were denied access to the war zone by armed formations.

The war in eastern Ukraine heated up dramatically on July 17, 2014 with the downing of a Malaysian civilian airliner by a surface-to-air missile. Police said the crowd swelled to around 10,000 people.

Between September 2014 and February 2015, Russia, Ukraine, France and Germany signed several iterations of the so-called Minsk agreements, which eventually stopped the forward movement of troops and reduced fighting significantly. While some Ukrainians did join the Nazi movement, a strong partisan, or guerrilla, resistance formed to fight the Nazis and worked with the Soviet Red Army to drive the Germans out. Anatoly Sapronenko/AFP via Getty Images


Ukraine has modernized their military in the years since the loss of Crimea and the occupation of the eastern Donbass region.

On 24 February 2022, Russia attacked Ukraine on several fronts beginning a major invasion.

World War Two (1941-1945)Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in June of 1941. The Minsk group meets again in Belarus to find a more successful agreement to end the fighting in eastern Ukraine, resulting in the Minsk II agreement. In late February, violence between police and protesters leaves more than 100 dead in the single bloodiest week in Ukraine's post-Soviet history. As fighting in the Donbas continues, Russia repeatedly strikes at Ukraine in a series of cyberattacks, including a 2016 attack on Kyiv's power grid that causes a major blackout.

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), actively aided and supplied these anti-Soviet guerrilla groups. Putin also demands a written response from the U.S. and NATO.

Russian troops take part in drills at the Kadamovskiy firing range in the Rostov region of southern Russia on Dec. 14, 2021. Maxim Marmur/AFP via Getty Images The Minsk II cease-fire agreement, which continued to hold despite being violated more than 1,000 times, was nearing the one-month mark.

The war ended in a Soviet victory, though millions of Ukrainians died.

Police said the crowd swelled to around 10,000 people.

It is likely that some non-combat casualties among fighters on both sides have sometimes been reported as combat casualties, whether by officials or de facto officials, or by media.

He orders Russia's military to deploy troops there under the guise of a "peacekeeping" mission.

On 8 March, all of its international staff had left Ukraine. hide caption. Under intense scrutiny by domestic and international observers, the second run-off was declared to be fair and free.

And the newly-forming nations all sought to control these mixed areas. Russia renews its troop presence near the Ukraine-Russia border, alarming U.S. intelligence officials, who travel to Brussels to brief NATO allies on the situation.

Maps are centered on the combat zone the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, divided along community boundaries. Crisis in Eastern Europe 2021-Why America Needs to Help Ukraine and Poland vs Russia, The History Guy: War and Conflicts News and Updates. The region around Lvov (called Lemburg by the Austrians), was one such area. After a third vote, Yushchenko prevails. Malaysia Airlines Flight 17 carried 298 passengers and crew, all of whom died in the SAM missile attack.

The war in eastern Ukraine heated up dramatically on July 17, 2014 with the downing of a Malaysian civilian airliner by a surface-to-air missile.

"We're not sure exactly what Mr. Putin is up to, but these movements certainly have our attention," says U.S. Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin. Military fatalities: combat fatalities, on either warring side.

In late 2021 and early 2022, Russian military forces spent several weeks mobilizing along the border with Ukraine, as Moscow engages in talks with the U.S. and NATO, attempting to sever the Wests ties to Ukraine.

Ukrainian prosecutors open criminal investigations into Tymoshenko, alleging corruption and misuse of government resources.

The pro-West politician Petro Poroshenko, a former government minister and head of the Council of the National Bank of Ukraine, is elected Ukraine's president. Under the agreement, Ukraine, the world's third-largest nuclear power at the time, said it would turn all its strategic nuclear arms over to Russia for destruction.

Biden emphasizes that the U.S. is committed to "Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity in the face of Russian aggression" but repeats that Ukraine has not yet met the conditions necessary to join NATO.

This list begins with the involvement of Russia (and hence Ukraine), in the First World War. Yuri Kadobnov/AFP via Getty Images Biden orders the movement of 1,000 U.S. troops from Germany to Romania and the deployment of 2,000 additional U.S. troops to Poland and Germany.

It is therefore possible we have overestimated the number of armed group fatalities caused by shelling.

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