santorini long island

The viticultural pride of the island is the sweet and strong Vinsanto (Italian: "holy wine") (Visanto), a dessert wine made from the best sun-dried Assyrtiko, Athiri, and Aidani grapes, and undergoing long barrel aging (up to twenty or twenty-five years for the top cuves). They cover routes to almost all places around the island and to most tourist spots. [37][35] On Santorini 35% of the houses collapsed and 45% suffered major or minor damage. Bus services link Fira to most parts of the island.

Santorini was named by the Latin Empire in the thirteenth century, and is a reference to Saint Irene, from the name of the old cathedral in the village of Perissa the name Santorini is a contraction of the name Santa Irini.

Agriculture also forms part of its economy, and the island sustains a wine industry. Once such visitor was the actress Olivia de Havilland who visited the island in September 1955 at the invitation of Petros Nomikos. In many houses stone staircases are still intact, and they contain huge ceramic storage jars (pithoi), mills, and pottery. These non-volcanic rocks are exposed at Mikro Profititis Ilias, Mesa Vouno, the Gavrillos ridge, Pyrgos, Monolithos, and the inner side of the caldera wall between Cape Plaka and Athinios. In addition the following additional types of fortifications were built throughout the island to protect the islands inhabitants. The name "Santorini" first appears c.1153-1154 in the work of the Muslim geographer al-Idrisi, as "Santurin", from the island's patron saint, Saint Irene. The only modes of transport on the island were a jeep, a small bus and the islands traditional donkeys and mules. [28][29], In general the islands economy continued to decline following World War II with a number of factories closing as a lot of industrial activity relocated after to Athens. [66] With only one spring (Zoodochos Pigi the Life-giving Spring) this encouraged the practice of diverting any rain that fell on roofs and courtyards to elaborate underground cisterns, supplemented in the 20th century with water imported from other areas of Greece. [62] Cruise ships anchor off Skala and passengers are transferred by local boatmen to shore at Skala where Fira is accessed by cable car, on foot or by donkeys and mules. [35], The expansion of tourism in recent years has resulted in the growth of the economy and population.

The central bus station is in Fira, the capital of the island, where buses depart very frequently. The northern part of the caldera was refilled by the volcano, then collapsed once more during the Minoan eruption. Thera is built upon a small, non-volcanic basement that represents the former non-volcanic island, which was approximately 9 by 6km (5.6 by 3.7mi).

Most of the population of Santorini had to emigrate to Piraeus and Athens.[56]. It can accommodate Boeing 757, Boeing 737, Airbus 320 series, Avro RJ, Fokker 70, and ATR 72 aircraft.

[21], In 1810 Santorini with 32 ships was the seventh largest of the Greek fleet after [48] Total rainfall averages 371mm (14.6in) per year. Vessels were dispatched to carry two power generators to assist in supporting the restoration of the electricity supply.[59][60]. Owned by Public Power Corporation (PPC) it has diesel engine and gas turbine powered generators. The traditional architecture of Santorini is similar to that of the other Cyclades, with low-lying cubical houses, made of local stone and whitewashed or limewashed with various volcanic ashes used as colours.

Santorini (Greek: , pronounced[sandorini]), officially Thira (Greek: [ira]) and classic Greek Thera (English pronunciation /r/), is an island in the southern Aegean Sea, about 200km (120mi) southeast from the Greek mainland. Noted archaeological remains found in Akrotiri are wall paintings or frescoes, which have kept their original colour well, as they were preserved under many metres of volcanic ash. ", "Population & housing census 2001 (incl. Its streets, squares, and walls were preserved in the layers of ejecta, sometimes as tall as eight metres, indicating this was a major town.

An alternate view takes qe-ra-si-ja and qe-ra-si-jo as proof of androgyny, and applies this name by similar arguments to the legendary seer, Tiresias, but these views are not mutually exclusive. (1976). The name Thera was revived in the nineteenth century as the official name of the island and its main city, but the colloquial name Santorini is still in popular use. The first level of Apotos in the video game Sonic Unleashed, released in 2008, is clearly based on Santorini. As a result in 1952, the Nomikos commissioned the architect Venetsanos to undertake the design and paid for the construction of the Hotel Atlantis, which was at the time the most glamorous hotel in the Cyclades.[31]. The total land area is 90.623km2 (34.990sqmi). [51], A brewery, the Santorini Brewing Company, began operating out of Santorini in 2011, based in the island's wine region.

In 1954, Santorini had approximately 12,000 inhabitants and very few visitors. The damage from the earthquake reduced most of the population to extreme poverty and caused many to leave the island in search of better opportunities with most settling in Athens. The oldest signs of human settlement are Late Neolithic (4th millennium BC or earlier), but c. 20001650BC Akrotiri developed into one of the Aegean's major Bronze Age ports, with recovered objects that came not just from Crete, but also from Anatolia, Cyprus, Syria, and Egypt, as well as from the Dodecanese and the Greek mainland. The Cyclades are part of a metamorphic complex that is known as the Cycladic Massif. There have been at least twelve large explosive eruptions, of which at least four were caldera-forming. Electricity for both Santorini and Therasia is principally supplied from the Thira Autonomous In the 5th century BC, Dorian Thera did not join the Delian League with Athens; and during the Peloponnesian War, Thera sided with Dorian Sparta, against Athens. [43] This allows the formation of large magma chambers, in which the magma can evolve to more silicic compositions. The Minoan eruption has been considered as possible inspiration for ancient stories including Atlantis and the Exodus. In their adaptation to their habitat, such vines are planted far apart, as their principal source of moisture is dew, and they often are trained in the shape of low-spiralling baskets, with the grapes hanging inside to protect them from the winds. [34][33] It was followed by aftershocks, the most significant being the first occurring at 3:24 am, 13 minutes after the main shock, which had a 7.2 magnitude. Crocus has been discovered to have many medicinal values including the relief of menstrual pain. Subduction occurred between the Oligocene and the Miocene, and the metamorphic grade represents the southernmost extent of the Cycladic blueschist belt. Today, that city is referred to as Ancient Thera. [75], The 2018 video game Assassin's Creed Odyssey features a DLC extra entitled Fate of Atlantis, in which a gateway to the mythical lost city of Atlantis is located in a temple beneath the island of Thera. Kefallinia (118), Hydra (120), Psara (60), Ithaca (38) Spetsai (60) and Skopelos (35). This has led to many of the historic cisterns falling into disrepair. The region first became volcanically active around 34 million years ago,[citation needed] though volcanism on Thera began around 2 million years ago with the extrusion of dacitic lavas from vents around Akrotiri. This group later claimed that they had named the city and the island after their leader, Theras. The islands children would present arriving passengers with flowers and bid them happy sailing by lighting small lanterns along the steps from Fira down to the port, offering them a beautiful farewell spectacle. Pichler, H. and Friedrich, W.L. "Mechanism of the Minoan eruption of Santorini". The provision of water supply and sewage treatment and disposal on both Santorini and Therasia Islands is undertaken by the municipally owned DEYA Thiras. [67], The first desalination plant was built at Oia following a donation in 1992 by Oia born businessman Aristeidis Alafouzos. Due to the lack of water islanders developed non-irrigated crops such as vines and olives that could survive on only the scant moisture provided by the common, early morning fog condensing on the ground as dew. It is the most active volcanic centre in the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, though what remains today is chiefly a water-filled caldera.

The Athenians took the island during the war, but lost it again after the Battle of Aegospotami. [24]

Because of the lack of majority support for direct participation in the revolt it was necessary for Matzarakis to enlist the aid of Kefalonians living in Santorini to on 5 May 1821[21] (the feast day of the patron saint of the island) raise the flag of the revolution and then expel the Ottoman officials from the island. At the time the population of Santorini was divided between those who supported independence, and (particularly among the Catholics and non-Orthodox) those who were ambivalent or distrustful of a revolt being directed by Hydra and Spetses and those who were fearful of the Sultans revenge. [4] The eruption left a large caldera surrounded by volcanic ash deposits hundreds of metres deep. [23], In decree 573 issued by the National Assembly 17 May 1823 Santorini was recognized as one of 15 provinces in the Greek controlled Aegean (nine in the Cyclades and six in the Sporades). Santorini was captured briefly by the Russians under Alexey Orlov during the Russo-Turkish War of 17681774, but returned to Ottoman control after. Once this happens, a large explosive eruption destroys the cone. [24] As his authority Matzarakis had a letter from Ypsilantis (dated 29 December 1820) addressed to the notables of Santorini and the Orthodox metropolitan bishop Zacharias Kyriakos (served 1814 - 1842). The Dorians have left a number of inscriptions incised in stone, in the vicinity of the temple of Apollo, attesting to pederastic relations between the authors and their lovers (eromenoi). [58], A fire at the power station in Monolithos, on 13 August 2018 put it out of service, resulting in a total loss of electricity supply across the two islands. The earliest eruptions, many of which were submarine, were on the Akrotiri Peninsula, and active between 650,000 and 550,000 years ago. At Knossos, in a LMIIIA context (14th century BC), seven Linear B texts while calling upon "all the gods" make sure to grant primacy to an elsewhere-unattested entity called qe-ra-si-ja and, once, qe-ra-si-jo. During the Bronze Age, Santorini was the site of the Minoan eruption, one of the largest volcanic eruptions in human history. [22], In the last years of Ottoman rule the majority of residents were farmers and seafarers who exported their abundant produce, while the level of education was improving on the island, with the Monastery of Profitis Ilias one of the most important monastic centres in the Cyclades.

The site was not a palace-complex as found in Crete, but neither was it a conglomeration of merchants' warehousing, as its excellent masonry and fine wall-paintings show. In another house are two antelopes painted with a confident calligraphic line, a fisherman holding fish strung by their gills, and a flotilla of pleasure boats, accompanied by leaping dolphins, where ladies take their ease in the shade of light canopies, among other frescoes. Herodotus reports that they called the island Callista and lived on it for eight generations.

[57] There is a programme underway at a cost of 124 million as part of the Cyclades Interconnection Project to connect the island via a submarine cable to Naxos and hence by extension to the mainland system by 2023.

During the Hellenistic period, the island was a major naval base for Ptolemaic Egypt. The Minoan eruption provides a fixed point for the chronology of the second millennium BC in the Aegean, because evidence of the eruption occurs throughout the region and the site itself contains material culture from outside. [8] For those, and other reasons, the date of the eruption is disputed. In 2007, the cruise ship MS Sea Diamond ran aground and sank inside the caldera.

Things were also not helped by the governors authoritarian character, arbitrariness and arrests of prominent islanders losing him the support of Zacharias Kyriakos, who had initially supported Matzarakis. The underground dwellings along the ridge overlooking the caldera, where the instability of the soil was responsible for the great extent of the damage, needed to be evacuated. He claimed to his superiors that the islanders needed political re-education as they did not understand why they had to pay higher taxes than those which they enjoyed under the Ottomans in order to support the struggle for independence. The complex formed during the Miocene and was folded and metamorphosed during the Alpine orogeny around 60 million years ago. [30], In the early 1950s the shipping magnate Evangelos P. Nomikos and his wife Loula decided to support their birthplace and so asked residents to choose whether they wanted the couple to pay for the construction of either a hotel or a hospital, to which local authorities replied that they would prefer a hotel. The site was re-opened in April 2012. [34] The earthquake was accompanied by a tsunami which while much higher at other islands is estimated to have reached 3 metres at Perissa and 2 metres at Vlichada on Santorini. The municipality of Thera includes an additional 12 local subdivisions on Santorini island: Akrotiri, Emporio, Episkopis Gonia, Exo Gonia, Imerovigli, Karterados, Megalohori, Mesaria, Pyrgos Kallistis, Thera (the seat of the municipality), Vothon, and Vourvoulos.[55]. The cycles end when the magma evolves to a rhyolitic composition, causing the most explosive eruptions. "Therasia" and its ethnikon "Therasios" are both attested in later Greek; and, since -sos was itself a genitive suffix in the Aegean Sprachbund, *Qeras[os] could also shrink to *Qera. The metamorphic grade is a blueschist facies, which results from tectonic deformation by the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate. 1301 by Iacopo II Barozzi, a member of the Cretan branch of the Venetian Barozzi family, whose descendant held it until it was annexed in c.1335 by Niccolo Sanudo after various legal and military conflicts.
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